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This example shows how to use the `csapi`

and `csape`

commands from Curve Fitting Toolbox™ to construct cubic spline interpolants.

The command

` values = csapi(x,y,xx)`

returns the values at `xx`

of the cubic spline interpolant to the given data (`x,y`

), using the not-a-knot end condition. This interpolant is a piecewise cubic function, with break sequence `x`

, whose cubic pieces join together to form a function with two continuous derivatives. The "not-a-knot" end condition means that, at the first and last interior break, even the third derivative is continuous (up to round-off error).

Specifying only two data points results in a straight line interpolant.

x = [0 1]; y = [2 0]; xx = linspace(0,6,121); plot(xx,csapi(x,y,xx),'k-',x,y,'ro') title('Interpolant to Two Points')

Specifying three data points gives a parabola.

x = [2 3 5]; y = [1 0 4]; plot(xx,csapi(x,y,xx),'k-',x,y,'ro') title('Interpolant to Three Points')

More generally, four or more data points give a cubic spline.

x = [1 1.5 2 4.1 5]; y = [1 -1 1 -1 1]; plot(xx,csapi(x,y,xx),'k-',x,y,'ro') title('Cubic Spline Interpolant to Five Points')

These look like nice interpolants, but how do we check that `csapi`

performs as advertised?

We already saw that `csapi`

interpolates, because we plotted the data points and the interpolant went right through those points. But to be sure that we get a cubic spline, it is best to start with data from a cubic spline of the expected sort and check whether `csapi`

*reproduces* that cubic spline, i.e., gives back that cubic spline from which the data were taken.

One simple example of a cubic spline function to check against is the truncated third power, i.e., the function

where `xi`

is one of the breaks and the "+" subscript indicates the *truncation function*, provided by the command `subplus`

:

`help subplus`

SUBPLUS Positive part. x , if x>=0 y = subplus(x) := (x)_{+} = , 0 , if x<=0 returns the positive part of X. Used for computing truncated powers.

The truncated 3rd power is plotted below for the particular choice `xi`

= `2`

. As expected, it is zero to the left of 2, and rises like (x-2)^3 to the right of 2.

plot(xx, subplus(xx-2).^3,'y','LineWidth',3) axis([0,6,-10,70])

Now we interpolate this particular cubic spline at the data sites 0:6, and plot the interpolant on top of the spline, in black.

x = 0:6; y = subplus(x-2).^3; values = csapi(x,y,xx); hold on plot(xx,values,'k',x,y,'ro') hold off title('Interpolant to ((x-2)_+)^3')

When comparing two functions, it is usually much more informative to plot their difference.

```
plot(xx, values - subplus(xx-2).^3)
title('Error in Cubic Spline Interpolation to ((x-2)_+)^3')
```

To put the size of their difference into context, you can also compute the maximum data value. This shows the error to be no worse than the inevitable round-off.

max_y = max(abs(y))

max_y = 64

As a further test, we interpolate a truncated power whose `csapi`

-produced interpolant at the sites 0:6 cannot coincide with it. For example, the first interior break of the interpolating spline is not really a knot since `csapi`

uses the "not-a-knot" condition, hence the interpolant has three continuous derivatives at that site. This implies that we should not be able to reproduce the truncated 3rd power centered at that site since its third derivative is discontinuous across that site.

```
values = csapi(x,subplus(x-1).^3,xx);
plot(xx, values - subplus(xx-1).^3)
title('Error in Not-a-Knot Interpolant to ((x-1)_+)^3')
```

Since 1 is a first interior knot, it is not active for this interpolant.

The difference is as large as .18, but decays rapidly as we move away from 1. This illustrates that *cubic spline interpolation is essentially local*.

It is possible to retain the interpolating cubic spline in a form suitable for subsequent evaluation, or for calculating its derivatives, or for other manipulations. This is done by calling `csapi`

in the form

` pp = csapi(x,y)`

which returns the ppform of the interpolant. You can evaluate this form at some new points `xx`

by the command

` values = fnval(pp,xx)`

You can differentiate the interpolant by the command

` dpp = fnder(pp)`

or integrate it by the command

` ipp = fnint(pp)`

which return the ppform of the derivative or the integral, respectively.

To show differentiation of an interpolant, we plot the derivative of this truncated power

(again in yellow) and then, on top of it, the derivative of our interpolant to the original truncated third power function (again in black).

plot(xx,3*subplus(xx-2).^2,'y','LineWidth',3) pp = csapi(x,subplus(x-2).^3); dpp = fnder(pp); hold on plot(xx,fnval(dpp,xx),'k') hold off title('Derivative of Interpolant to ((x-2)_+)^3')

Again, the more informative comparison is to plot their difference, and as before this is no bigger than round-off.

```
plot(xx, fnval(dpp,xx) - 3*subplus(xx-2).^2)
title('Error in Derivative of interpolant to ((x-2)_+)^3')
```

The second derivative of the truncated power is

A plot of the difference between this function and the second derivative of the interpolant to the original function shows that there are now jumps, but they are still within roundoff.

```
ddpp = fnder(dpp);
plot(xx, fnval(ddpp,xx) - 6*subplus(xx-2))
title('Error in Second Derivative of Interpolant to ((x-2)_+)^3')
```

The integral of the truncated power is

A plot of the difference between this function and the integral of the interpolant to the original function again shows that the errors are within round-off.

```
ipp = fnint(pp);
plot(xx, fnval(ipp,xx) - subplus(xx-2).^4/4)
title('Error in Integral of Interpolant to ((x-2)_+)^3')
```

Like `csapi`

, the `csape`

command provides a cubic spline interpolant to given data. However, it permits various additional end conditions. Its simplest version,

` pp = csape(x,y)`

uses the Lagrange end condition, which is a common alternative to the not-a-knot condition used by `csapi`

. `csape`

does not directly return values of the interpolant, but only its ppform.

For example, consider again interpolation to the function

which `csapi`

fails to reproduce well. We plot the error of the not-a-knot interpolant returned by `csapi`

(in black), along with the error of the interpolant obtained from `csape`

(in red).

exact = subplus(xx-1).^3; plot(xx, fnval(csapi(x,subplus(x-1).^3),xx) - exact,'k') hold on plot(xx, fnval(csape(x,subplus(x-1).^3),xx) - exact,'r') title('Error in Not-a-Knot vs. Lagrange End Conditions') legend({'Not-a-Knot' 'Lagrange'}); hold off

There is not much difference between the two interpolants in this case.

The `csape`

command also provides ways to specify several other types of end conditions for an interpolating cubic spline. For example, the command

` pp = csape(x,y,'variational')`

uses the so-called `natural' end conditions. This means that the second derivative is zero at the two extreme breaks.

This step shows how to apply `natural' cubic spline interpolation to the function

and plot the error. The code below computes the `natural' spline interpolant with an alternative argument syntax that is equivalent to the 'variational' string argument: using the string 'second' specifies that `csape`

should set the second derivative at the extreme data sites to the default value of 0.

pp = csape(x,subplus(x-2).^3,'second'); plot(xx, fnval(pp,xx) - subplus(xx-2).^3) title('Error in ''Natural'' Spline Interpolation to ((x-2)_+)^3')

Note the large error near the right end. This is due to the fact that the 'natural' end conditions implicitly insist on having a zero second derivative there.

We can also explicitly use the correct second derivatives to get a small error. First, we compute the correct second derivative values of the truncated power at the endpoints.

endcond = 6*subplus(x([1 end])-2);

Then we create the interpolant, specifying that second derivatives at the endpoints are to be matched to the second derivative values we just computed. We do this by providing `endcond(1)`

for the left endpoint condition, and `endcond(2)`

for the right, along with the data values.

pp = csape(x,[endcond(1) subplus(x-2).^3 endcond(2)], 'second'); plot(xx, fnval(pp,xx) - subplus(xx-2).^3,'r') title(['Error in Spline Interpolation to ((x-1)_+)^3'; ... ' When Matching the 2nd Derivative at Ends '])

`csape`

also permits specification of endpoint *slopes*. This is the *clamped* (or, *complete*) cubic spline interpolant. The statement

` pp = csape(x,[sl,y,sr],'clamped')`

creates the cubic spline interpolant to the data (`x`

, `y`

) that also has slope `sl`

at the leftmost data site and slope `sr`

at the rightmost data site.

It is even possible to mix these conditions. For example, our much-exercised truncated power function

has slope 0 at `x`

=0 and second derivative 30 at `x`

=6 (the last data site).

Therefore, by matching the slope at the left end and the curvature at the right, we expect no error in the resulting interpolant.

pp = csape(x, [0 subplus(x-1).^3 30], [1 2]); plot(xx, fnval(pp,xx) - subplus(xx-1).^3) title(['Error in Spline Interpolation to ((x-1)_+)^3'; ... ' with Mixed End Conditions. '])

It is also possible to prescribe *periodic* end conditions. For example, the sine function is 2*pi-periodic and has the values `[0 -1 0 1 0]`

at the sites `(pi/2)*(-2:2)`

. The difference, between the sine function and its periodic cubic spline interpolant at these sites, is only 2 percent. Not bad.

x = (pi/2)*(-2:2); y = [0 -1 0 1 0]; pp = csape(x,y, 'periodic' ); xx = linspace(-pi,pi,201); plot(xx, sin(xx) - fnval(pp,xx), 'x') title('Error in Periodic Cubic Spline Interpolation to sin(x)')

Any end condition not covered explicitly by `csapi`

or `csape`

can be handled by constructing the interpolant with the `csape`

default side conditions, and then adding to it an appropriate scalar multiple of an interpolant to zero values and some side conditions. If there are two `nonstandard' side conditions to be satisfied, you may have to solve a 2-by-2 linear system first.

For example, suppose that you want to compute the cubic spline interpolant `s`

to the data

x = 0:.25:3; q = @(x) x.*(-1 + x.*(-1+x.*x/5)); y = q(x);

and enforce the condition

` lambda(s) := a * (Ds)(e) + b * (D^2 s)(e) = c`

on the first and second derivatives of `s`

at the point `e`

.

The data were generated from a quartic polynomial that happens to satisfy this side condition with specific parameters

e = x(1); a = 2; b = -3; c = 4;

To construct the interpolant that satisfies this specific condition, we first construct the interpolant with the default end conditions

pp1 = csape(x,y);

and the first derivative of its first polynomial piece.

dp1 = fnder(fnbrk(pp1,1));

In addition, we construct the cubic spline interpolant to zero data values, specifying that it have a slope of 1 at `e`

,

pp0 = csape(x,[1,zeros(size(y)),0], [1,0]);

as well as constructing the first derivative of its first polynomial piece.

dp0 = fnder(fnbrk(pp0,1));

Then we compute `lambda`

for both `pp1`

and `pp0`

,

lam1 = a*fnval(dp1,e) + b*fnval(fnder(dp1),e); lam0 = a*fnval(dp0,e) + b*fnval(fnder(dp0),e);

and construct the correct linear combination of `pp1`

and `pp0`

to get a cubic spline

` s := pp1 + ((c - lambda(pp1))/lambda(pp0)) * pp0`

that does satisfy the desired condition, as well as the default end condition at the right endpoint. We form this linear combination with the help of `fncmb`

.

s = fncmb(pp0,(c-lam1)/lam0,pp1);

A plot of the interpolation error shows that `s`

fits the quartic polynomial slightly better near `e`

than the interpolant `pp1`

with the default conditions does.

xx = (-.3):.05:.7; yy = q(xx); plot(xx, fnval(pp1,xx) - yy, 'x') hold on plot(xx, fnval(s,xx) - yy, 'o') hold off legend({'Default conditions' 'Nonstandard conditions'},'location','SE')

If we want to enforce the condition

` mu(s) := (D^3 s)(3) = 14.6`

on the third derivative of the interpolant (the quartic satisfies this condition), then we construct an additional cubic spline interpolating to zero values, and with zero first derivative at the left endpoint, hence certain to be independent from `pp0`

.

pp2 = csape(x,[0,zeros(size(y)),1],[0,1]);

Then we find the coefficients `d0`

and `d2`

in the linear combination

` s := pp1 + d0*pp0 + d2*pp2`

that solves the linear system

` lambda(s) = c`

` mu(s) = 14.6`

Note that both `pp0`

and `pp2`

vanish at all interpolation sites, hence `s`

will match the given data for any choice of `d0`

and `d2`

.

For amusement, we use the MATLAB® encoding facility to write a loop to compute `lambda(pp_j)`

and `mu(pp_j)`

, for `j`

=0:2.

dd = zeros(2,3); for j=0:2 J = num2str(j); eval(['dpp',J,'=fnder(pp',J,');']); eval(['ddpp',J,'=fnder(dpp',J,');']); eval(['dd(1,1+',J,')=a*fnval(dpp',J,',e)+b*fnval(ddpp',J,',e);']); eval(['dd(2,1+',J,')=fnval(fnder(ddpp',J,'),3);']); end

Given the values of `lambda`

and `mu`

for `pp0`

, `pp1`

, and `pp2`

, we then solve for the coefficients that define the correct linear combination.

d = dd(:,[1,3])\([c;14.6]-dd(:,2)); s = fncmb(fncmb(pp0,d(1),pp2,d(2)),pp1); xxx = 0:.05:3; yyy = q(xxx); plot(xxx, yyy - fnval(s,xxx),'x') title('Error in Spline Interpolant to y = x*(-1 + x*(-1+x*x/5))')

For reassurance, we compare this error with the one obtained in complete cubic spline interpolation to this function:

hold on plot(xxx, yyy - fnval(csape(x,[-1,y,-7+(4/5)*27],'clamped'),xxx),'o') hold off legend({'Nonstandard conditions' 'Endslope conditions'})

The errors differ (and not by much) only near the end points, testifying to the fact that both `pp0`

and `pp2`

are sizable only near their respective end points.

As a final check, we verify that `s`

satisfies the desired third derivative condition at 3.

fnval(fnder(s,3),3)

ans = 14.6000