# innerprodintbits

Number of integer bits needed for fixed-point inner product

## Syntax

`innerprodintbits(a,b)`

## Description

`innerprodintbits(a,b)`

computes the minimum
number of integer bits necessary in the inner product of `a'*b`

to
guarantee that no overflows occur and to preserve best precision.

`a`

and`b`

are`fi`

vectors.The values of

`a`

are known.Only the numeric type of

`b`

is relevant. The values of`b`

are ignored.

## Examples

The primary use of this function is to determine the number
of integer bits necessary in the output `Y`

of an
FIR filter that computes the inner product between constant coefficient
row vector `B`

and state column vector `Z`

.
For example,

for k=1:length(X); Z = [X(k);Z(1:end-1)]; Y(k) = B * Z; end

## Algorithms

In general, an inner product grows `log2(n)`

bits
for vectors of length `n`

. However, in the case of
this function the vector `a`

is known and its values
do not change. This knowledge is used to compute the smallest number
of integer bits that are necessary in the output to guarantee that
no overflow will occur.

The largest gain occurs when the vector `b`

has
the same sign as the constant vector `a`

. Therefore,
the largest gain due to the vector `a`

is `a*sign(a')`

,
which is equal to `sum(abs(a))`

.

The overall number of integer bits necessary to guarantee that no overflow occurs in the inner product is computed by:

n = ceil(log2(sum(abs(a)))) + number of integer bits in b + 1 sign bit

The extra sign bit is only added if both `a`

and `b`

are
signed and `b`

attains its minimum. This prevents
overflow in the event of (-1)*(-1).

## Version History

**Introduced before R2006a**