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The examples in the sections of this topic show the differences among the four
settings of the `ProductMode`

and `SumMode`

properties:

`FullPrecision`

`KeepLSB`

`KeepMSB`

`SpecifyPrecision`

To follow along, first set the following preferences:

p = fipref; p.NumericTypeDisplay = 'short'; p.FimathDisplay = 'none'; p.LoggingMode = 'on'; F = fimath('OverflowAction','Wrap',... 'RoundingMethod','Floor',... 'CastBeforeSum',false); warning off format compact

Next, define `fi`

objects `a`

and
`b`

. Both have signed 8-bit data types. The fraction length
gets chosen automatically for each `fi`

object to yield the best
possible precision:

a = fi(pi, true, 8)

a = 3.1563 s8,5

b = fi(exp(1), true, 8)

b = 2.7188 s8,5

Now, set `ProductMode`

and `SumMode`

for
`a`

and `b`

to
`FullPrecision`

and look at some results:

F.ProductMode = 'FullPrecision'; F.SumMode = 'FullPrecision'; a.fimath = F; b.fimath = F; a

a = 3.1563 %011.00101 s8,5

b

b = 2.7188 %010.10111 s8,5

a*b

ans = 8.5811 %001000.1001010011 s16,10

a+b

ans = 5.8750 %0101.11100 s9,5

In `FullPrecision`

mode, the product word length grows to the sum
of the word lengths of the operands. In this case, each operand has 8 bits, so the
product word length is 16 bits. The product fraction length is the sum of the
fraction lengths of the operands, in this case 5 + 5 = 10 bits.

The sum word length grows by one most significant bit to accommodate the possibility of a carry bit. The sum fraction length aligns with the fraction lengths of the operands, and all fractional bits are kept for full precision. In this case, both operands have 5 fractional bits, so the sum has 5 fractional bits.

Now, set `ProductMode`

and `SumMode`

for
`a`

and `b`

to `KeepLSB`

and
look at some results:

F.ProductMode = 'KeepLSB'; F.ProductWordLength = 12; F.SumMode = 'KeepLSB'; F.SumWordLength = 12; a.fimath = F; b.fimath = F; a

a = 3.1563 %011.00101 s8,5

b

b = 2.7188 %010.10111 s8,5

a*b

ans = 0.5811 %00.1001010011 s12,10

a+b

ans = 5.8750 %0000101.11100 s12,5

In `KeepLSB`

mode, you specify the word lengths and the least
significant bits of results are automatically kept. This mode models the behavior of
integer operations in the C language.

The product fraction length is the sum of the fraction lengths of the operands. In
this case, each operand has `5`

fractional bits, so the product
fraction length is `10`

bits. In this mode, all 10 fractional bits
are kept. Overflow occurs because the full-precision result requires
`6`

integer bits, and only `2`

integer bits
remain in the product.

The sum fraction length aligns with the fraction lengths of the operands, and in
this model all least significant bits are kept. In this case, both operands had
`5`

fractional bits, so the sum has `5`

fractional bits. The full-precision result requires `4`

integer
bits, and `7`

integer bits remain in the sum, so no overflow occurs
in the sum.

Now, set `ProductMode`

and `SumMode`

for
`a`

and `b`

to `KeepMSB`

and
look at some results:

F.ProductMode = 'KeepMSB'; F.ProductWordLength = 12; F.SumMode = 'KeepMSB'; F.SumWordLength = 12; a.fimath = F; b.fimath = F; a

a = 3.1563 %011.00101 s8,5

b

b = 2.7188 %010.10111 s8,5

a*b

ans = 8.5781 %001000.100101 s12,6

a+b

ans = 5.8750 %0101.11100000 s12,8

In `KeepMSB`

mode, you specify the word lengths and the most
significant bits of sum and product results are automatically kept. This mode models
the behavior of many DSP devices where the product and sum are kept in double-wide
registers, and the programmer chooses to transfer the most significant bits from the
registers to memory after each operation.

The full-precision product requires `6`

integer bits, and the
fraction length of the product is adjusted to accommodate all `6`

integer bits in this mode. No overflow occurs. However, the full-precision product
requires `10`

fractional bits, and only `6`

are
available. Therefore, precision is lost.

The full-precision sum requires `4`

integer bits, and the
fraction length of the sum is adjusted to accommodate all `4`

integer bits in this mode. The full-precision sum requires only `5`

fractional bits; in this case there are `8`

, so there is no loss of
precision.

This example shows that, in `KeepMSB`

mode the fraction length
changes regardless of whether an overflow occurs. The fraction length is set to the
amount needed to represent the product in case both terms use the maximum possible
value (18+18-16=20 in this
example).

F = fimath('SumMode','KeepMSB','ProductMode','KeepMSB',... 'ProductWordLength',16,'SumWordLength',16); a = fi(100,1,16,-2,'fimath',F); a*a

ans = 0 DataTypeMode: Fixed-point: binary point scaling Signedness: Signed WordLength: 16 FractionLength: -20 RoundingMethod: Nearest OverflowAction: Saturate ProductMode: KeepMSB ProductWordLength: 16 SumMode: KeepMSB SumWordLength: 16 CastBeforeSum: true

Now set `ProductMode`

and `SumMode`

for
`a`

and `b`

to
`SpecifyPrecision`

and look at some results:

F.ProductMode = 'SpecifyPrecision'; F.ProductWordLength = 8; F.ProductFractionLength = 7; F.SumMode = 'SpecifyPrecision'; F.SumWordLength = 8; F.SumFractionLength = 7; a.fimath = F; b.fimath = F; a

a = 3.1563 %011.00101 s8,5

b

b = 2.7188 %010.10111 s8,5

a*b

ans = 0.5781 %0.1001010 s8,7

a+b

ans = -0.1250 %1.1110000 s8,7

In `SpecifyPrecision`

mode, you must specify both word length and
fraction length for sums and products. This example unwisely uses fractional formats
for the products and sums, with `8`

-bit word lengths and
`7`

-bit fraction lengths.

The full-precision product requires `6`

integer bits, and the
example specifies only `1`

, so the product overflows. The
full-precision product requires `10`

fractional bits, and the
example only specifies `7`

, so there is precision loss in the
product.

The full-precision sum requires `4`

integer bits, and the example
specifies only `1`

, so the sum overflows. The full-precision sum
requires `5`

fractional bits, and the example specifies
`7`

, so there is no loss of precision in the sum.

For more information about the `fimath`

object and its
properties, see fimath Object Properties