Byte Pack

Convert input signals to 8-, 16-, or 32-bit vector

  • Library:
  • Simulink Support Package for Arduino Hardware/Utilities

    Embedded Coder Support Package for STMicroelectronics Discovery Boards/Utilities

    Simulink Coder Support Package for STMicroelectronics Nucleo Boards/Utilities

    Embedded Coder Support Package for Texas Instruments C2000 Processors/Target Communication

Description

The Byte Pack block converts one or more signals of user-selectable data types to a single uint8, uint16, or uint32 vector output. Using the parameters of this block, you specify the input data types and the alignment of the data in the output vector. The output of this block connects to an input port of a send block, such as SPI Transmit, SCI Transmit, or UDP Send. The send block then transmits signals across various communication networks, such as SPI, SCI, UDP, or I2C.

Ports

Input

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The number of input ports and their types specified as a cell array in the Input port data types (cell array) parameter. The block can have from 1 to N input ports. N is the number of incoming data types specified in the cell array.

Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | Boolean

Output

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Transmits a vector of packed data.

Data Types: uint8 | uint16 | uint32

Parameters

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The data type of the packed output signal at the output port.

Data types of input signals (unpacked), specified as a cell array. The block creates input ports in the order of the incoming data types specified in the cell array. For example, the first data type in the cell array corresponds to the top port and the last data type corresponds to the bottom port.

For example, if the data types are single, uint8, and uint8, the block creates three input ports. The order of the input port data types is same as the data types specified in the cell array.

Each element in the input signal list starts at a multiple of the byte alignment value, specified from the start of the vector. If the byte alignment value is larger than the size of the data type in bytes, the input values are padded with zeros to fill the space allotted.

For example, if the byte alignment value is 4, a uint32 receives no padding, a uint16 receives 2 bytes of padding, and a uint8 receives 3 bytes of padding.

Tip

If the model accesses the data items frequently, consider selecting a byte alignment value equal to the largest data type that you want to access. If the model transfers the data items frequently as a group, consider selecting a byte alignment value of 1, which packs the data into the smallest space possible.

Example

Suppose that you are packing four signals into a vector of data type uint8 or uint16, and the signals have these attributes.

DimensionSizeType
Vector3int8
Vector2int16
Scalar1uint8
Scalar1uint32

To pack the signals:

  1. Set Output port (packed) data type. This example compares uint8 and uint16.

  2. Set Input port data types (cell array) to:

    {'int8’, ‘int16’, ‘uint8’, ‘uint32’}

    The block creates four input ports that match the order of the incoming signal data types specified in the cell array.

  3. Set the required byte alignment value. The byte alignment value specifies the number of bytes after which a new byte starts from the previous boundary.

    The size of the output is based on the packed vector size, the byte alignment value, and the smallest memory cell size of the processor. Depending on the byte alignment value, input values are padded with zeros before the next signal is packed. The smallest addressable memory cell indicates the number of bits occupied by the char or uint8 data type for a processor and determines the structure of packets.

  4. Connect incoming signals to the input port of the Byte Pack block.

For processors with a smallest addressable memory cell of 8 bits per char, consider these values for input signals.

Unpacked Signals
DimensionSizeData TypeDec ValueHex Value
Vector3int83523
404
–3FD
Vector2int1621800DA
–12FFF4
Scalar1uint811270
Scalar1uint32500000001388

The packed output vector data type uint8 is:

Red zeros represent padded empty memory cells.

For a packed output vector of data type uint8 and byte alignment value 2, the int8 data value (23 04 FD) occupies the first three memory cells, with each cell occupying 8 bits. Because three is not a multiple of the byte alignment value 2, the next input signal of int16 data value (00DA FFF4) is allocated the next four cells (fifth through eighth), leaving the fourth cell empty. The block fills the empty cell with zero. The rest of the input signals are packed in a similar way.

After packing all input signals, the Byte Pack block calculates the total packets allocated and outputs a uint8 vector of size 4 + 4 + 2 + 4 = 14. Here, the int8 signal occupies the first 4 cells, the int16 signal occupies the second 4 cells, the uint16 signal occupies the third 2 cells, and the uint32 signal occupies the fourth 4 cells.

The packed output vector of data type uint16 is:

For processors such as Texas Instruments™ C2000™, with the smallest addressable memory cell of 16 bits per char, consider these values for input signals. The int8 and uint8 data values occupy 16 bits, as indicated by the hex value.

Unpacked Signals
DimensionSizeData TypeDec ValueHex Value
Vector3int8350023
40004
–3FFFD
Vector2int1621800DA
–12FFF4
Scalar1uint81120070
Scalar1uint32500000001388

For the packed output vector of data type uint8, the output packet occupies 16 bits, although the data value the packet represents is 8 bits. The byte alignment values are calculated with respect to the16-bit addressable memory.

For a packed output vector of data type uint8 and byte alignment value 2, the int8 data value (0023 0004 00FD) occupies the first three memory cells, with each cell occupying 16 bits. Because three is not a multiple of byte alignment value 2, the next signal of data type int16 (00DA 0000 00F4 00FF) is allocated the next four cells (fifth through eighth), leaving the fourth cell empty. The block fills the empty cell with zero. The rest of the input signals are packed in a similar way. After packing all input signals, the Byte Pack block calculates total packets allocated and outputs a uint8 vector of size 4 + 4 + 2 + 4 = 14.

For the packed output vector of data type uint16, the output packet occupies 16 bits, and the data value the packet represents is also 16 bits. For a packet size of 16 and larger, the byte alignment is calculated with respect to the number of bytes the data values are packed into. Therefore, in this case, 1-byte alignment is not allowed.

For a packed output of data type uint16 and byte alignment value 2, the three int8 data values (0423 FD) are packed together as two words in the first two memory cells. The fourth byte in the second memory cell is empty and filled with zero. The int16 data value (00DA FFF4) is allocated the next two memory cells (third and fourth). The rest of the input signals are packed in a similar way. After packing all signals, the Byte Pack block calculates total packets allocated and outputs a uint16 vector of size 2 + 2 + 1 + 2 = 7.

Introduced in R2016b