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Differentiation

This example shows how to analytically find and evaluate derivatives using Symbolic Math Toolbox™. In the example you will find the 1st and 2nd derivative of f(x) and use these derivatives to find local maxima, minima and inflection points.

First Derivatives: Finding Local Minima and Maxima

Computing the first derivative of an expression helps you find local minima and maxima of that expression. Before creating a symbolic expression, declare symbolic variables:

syms x

By default, solutions that include imaginary components are included in the results. Here, consider only real values of x by setting the assumption that x is real:

assume(x, 'real')

As an example, create a rational expression (i.e., a fraction where the numerator and denominator are polynomial expressions).

f = (3*x^3 + 17*x^2 + 6*x + 1)/(2*x^3 - x + 3)
f = 

3x3+17x2+6x+12x3-x+3

Plotting this expression shows that the expression has horizontal and vertical asymptotes, a local minimum between -1 and 0, and a local maximum between 1 and 2:

fplot(f)
grid

To find the horizontal asymptote, compute the limits of f for x approaching positive and negative infinities. The horizontal asymptote is y = 3/2:

lim_left = limit(f, x, -inf)
lim_left = 

32

lim_right = limit(f, x, inf)
lim_right = 

32

Add this horizontal asymptote to the plot:

hold on
plot(xlim, [lim_right lim_right], 'LineStyle', '-.', 'Color', [0.25 0.25 0.25])

To find the vertical asymptote of f, find the poles of f:

pole_pos = poles(f, x)
pole_pos = 

-1634-2414324321/3-34-2414324321/3

Approximate the exact solution numerically by using the double function:

double(pole_pos)
ans = -1.2896

Now find the local minimum and maximum of f. If a point is a local extremum (either minimum or maximum), the first derivative of the expression at that point is equal to zero. Compute the derivative of f using diff:

g = diff(f, x)
g = 

9x2+34x+62x3-x+3-6x2-13x3+17x2+6x+12x3-x+32

To find the local extrema of f, solve the equation g == 0:

g0 = solve(g, x)
g0 = 

(σ26σ31/6-σ1-1568σ26σ31/6+σ1-1568)where  σ1=3374916331789396323559826+2198209982639304+2841σ31/3σ2578-9σ32/3σ2-361σ22896σ31/6σ21/4  σ2=2841σ31/31156+9σ32/3+361289  σ3=3178939632355176868+2198209530604

Approximate the exact solution numerically by using the double function:

double(g0)
ans = 2×1

   -0.1892
    1.2860

The expression f has a local maximum at x = 1.286 and a local minimum at x = -0.189. Obtain the function values at these points using subs:

f0 = subs(f,x,g0)
f0 = 

(3σ2-17σ5-σ6+15682-σ4+σ1+1134σ6+2σ2-σ5-21968-σ4+17σ6+σ5-15682+3σ3+σ1-1134σ6-2σ3+σ5-21968)where  σ1=σ7σ91/6σ81/4  σ2=σ5-σ6+15683  σ3=σ6+σ5-15683  σ4=σ8σ91/6  σ5=σ76σ91/6σ81/4  σ6=σ86σ91/6  σ7=3374916331789396323559826+2198209982639304+2841σ91/3σ8578-9σ92/3σ8-361σ8289  σ8=2841σ91/31156+9σ92/3+361289  σ9=3178939632355176868+2198209530604

Approximate the exact solution numerically by using the double function on the variable f0:

double(f0)
ans = 2×1

    0.1427
    7.2410

Add point markers to the graph at the extrema:

plot(g0, f0, 'ok')

Second Derivatives: Finding Inflection Points

Computing the second derivative lets you find inflection points of the expression. The most efficient way to compute second or higher-order derivatives is to use the parameter that specifies the order of the derivative:

h = diff(f, x, 2)
h = 

18x+34σ1-26x2-19x2+34x+6σ12-12xσ2σ12+26x2-12σ2σ13where  σ1=2x3-x+3  σ2=3x3+17x2+6x+1

Now Simplify that result:

h = simplify(h)
h = 

268x6+90x5+18x4-699x3-249x2+63x+1722x3-x+33

To find inflection points of f, solve the equation h = 0. Here, use the numeric solver vpasolve to calculate floating-point approximations of the solutions:

h0 = vpasolve(h, x)
h0 = 

(0.578718426554417483196010858601961.8651543689917122385037075917613-1.4228127856020972275345064554049-1.8180342567480118987898749770461i-1.4228127856020972275345064554049+1.8180342567480118987898749770461i-0.46088831805332057449182335801198+0.47672261854520359440077796751805i-0.46088831805332057449182335801198-0.47672261854520359440077796751805i)

The expression f has two inflection points: x = 1.865 and x = 0.579. Note that vpasolve also returns complex solutions. Discard those:

h0(imag(h0)~=0) = []
h0 = 

(0.578718426554417483196010858601961.8651543689917122385037075917613)

Add markers to the plot showing the inflection points:

plot(h0, subs(f,x,h0), '*k')
hold off