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This example shows how to compute definite integrals using Symbolic Math Toolbox™.

Definite Integral

Show that the definite integral for on is 0.

syms x
ans = 

Definite Integrals in Maxima and Minima

To maximize for , first, define the symbolic variables and assume that :

syms a x
assume(a >= 0);

Then, define the function to maximize:

F = int(sin(a*x)*sin(x/a),x,-a,a)
F = 

Note the special case here for . To make computations easier, use assumeAlso to ignore this possibility (and later check that is not the maximum):

assumeAlso(a ~= 1);
F = int(sin(a*x)*sin(x/a),x,-a,a)
F = 

Create a plot of to check its shape:

fplot(F,[0 10])

Use diff to find the derivative of with respect to :

Fa = diff(F,a)
Fa = 

The zeros of are the local extrema of :

hold on
fplot(Fa,[0 10])
grid on

The maximum is between 1 and 2. Use vpasolve to find an approximation of the zero of in this interval:

a_max = vpasolve(Fa,a,[1,2])
a_max = 

Use subs to get the maximal value of the integral:

F_max = subs(F,a,a_max)
F_max = 

The result still contains exact numbers and . Use vpa to replace these by numerical approximations:

ans = 

Check that the excluded case does not result in a larger value:

ans = 

Multiple Integration

Numerical integration over higher dimensional areas has special functions:

integral2(@(x,y) x.^2-y.^2,0,1,0,1)
ans = 4.0127e-19

There are no such special functions for higher-dimensional symbolic integration. Use nested one-dimensional integrals instead:

syms x y
ans = 

Line Integrals

Define a vector field F in 3D space:

syms x y z
F(x,y,z) = [x^2*y*z, x*y, 2*y*z];

Next, define a curve:

syms t
ux(t) = sin(t);
uy(t) = t^2-t;
uz(t) = t;

The line integral of F along the curve u is defined as , where the on the right-hand-side denotes a scalar product.

Use this definition to compute the line integral for from

F_int = int(F(ux,uy,uz)*diff([ux;uy;uz],t),t,0,1)
F_int = 

Get a numerical approximation of this exact result:

ans =