I also had issues launching MATLAB R2013a off my computer after upgrading from Mountain Lion to Mavericks. I contacted the MathWorks Support Team and they tried to help. I really appreciate the time and advice they provided, but my issue is unfortunately still unresolved.
I followed all four procedures recommended by the help page on MATLAB Central "Why am I unable to launch MATLAB after upgrading to OS X Mountain Lion or OS X Mavericks?" but they still have not solved my issue.
First, I uninstalled XQuartz through two methods to make sure there was nothing on my system. I restarted my computer after steps 1 and 2.
1. Went to Utilities and trashed XQUartz 2. Followed the XQuartz wikipage and made the following commands via terminal:
launchctl unload /Library/LaunchAgents/org.macosforge.xquartz.startx.plist sudo launchctl unload /Library/LaunchDaemons/org.macosforge.xquartz.privileged_startx.plist sudo rm -rf /opt/X11* /Library/Launch*org.macosforge.xquartz.* /Applications/Utilities/XQuartz.app /etc/*paths.d/*XQuartz sudo pkgutil --forget org.macosforge.xquartz.pkg
Secondly, I uninstalled X11 by the next two steps. I restarted my computer after steps 1 and 2.
1. open /opt -> trashing x11 2. Entered the following commands in terminal:
sudo rm /usr/X11
Next I uninstalled MATLAB2013Ra, deactivated my license, and then reinstalled MATLAB2013Ra. When I double click on the Activate.app the application says that my license is active, so we now know that is not an issue.
Lastly, I performed the:
/Applications/MATLAB_<release>_Student.app/etc/maci64/lmutil lmhostid ifconfig