L = fspl(R,lambda)
returns the free space path loss in decibels for a waveform with wavelength
lambda propagated over a distance of R
meters. The minimum value of L is zero, indicating no path
loss.

This formula assumes that the target is in the far-field of the transmitting
element or array. In the near-field, the free-space path loss formula is not valid
and can result in a loss smaller than 0 dB, equivalent to a signal gain. For this
reason, the loss is set to 0 dB for range values R ≤ λ/4π.

References

[1] Proakis, J. Digital
Communications. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.

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