Interoperability Between Deep Learning Toolbox, TensorFlow, PyTorch, and ONNX
This topic provides an overview of the Deep Learning Toolbox™ import and export functions and describes common deep learning workflows that you can perform in MATLAB® with an imported network from TensorFlow™, PyTorch®, or ONNX™. For more information on how to overcome hurdles when you import networks, see Tips on Importing Models from TensorFlow, PyTorch, and ONNX.
Many pretrained networks are available in Deep Learning Toolbox. For more information, see Pretrained Deep Neural Networks. However, MATLAB does not stand alone in the deep learning ecosystem. Use the import and export functions to access models available in open-source repositories and collaborate with colleagues who work in other deep learning frameworks.
Support Packages for Interoperability
You must have the relevant support packages to run the Deep Learning Toolbox import and export functions. If the support package is not installed, each function provides a download link to the corresponding support package in the Add-On Explorer. A recommended practice is to download the support package to the default location for the version of MATLAB you are running. You can also directly download the support packages from File Exchange.
This table lists the Deep Learning Toolbox support packages for import and export, the File Exchange links, and the functions each support package provides.
By using ONNX as an intermediate format, you can interoperate with other deep learning frameworks that support ONNX model export or import.
importTensorFlowLayers functions are recommended over the
importKerasLayers functions. For more details, see Recommended Functions to Import TensorFlow Models.
Functions that Import Deep Learning Networks
External Deep Learning Platforms and Import Functions
This table describes the deep learning platforms from which the Deep Learning Toolbox functions import models and which model formats they can import.
|External Deep Learning Platform||Model Format||Import Model as Network||Import Model as Layer Graph|
|PyTorch||Traced model file with the ||Not applicable|
|ONNX||ONNX model format|
Each import and export function reference page contains a Limitations section
which describes the supported versions of the external platform. For example, for
the TensorFlow versions that the
function supports, see Limitations.
Objects Returned by Import Functions
This table describes the Deep Learning Toolbox network or layer graph that the import functions return when you import a pretrained model from TensorFlow, PyTorch, or ONNX.
|Import Function||Deep Learning Toolbox Object||Examples|
|Import TensorFlow Network as DAGNetwork to Classify Image, Import TensorFlow Network as dlnetwork to Classify Image|
|Import TensorFlow Network as Layer Graph Compatible with DAGNetwork, Import TensorFlow Network as Layer Graph Compatible with dlnetwork|
|Import and Plot Keras Network|
|Import Keras Network Layers and Train Network|
|Uninitialized ||Import Network from PyTorch and Classify Image|
|Import ONNX Network as DAGNetwork, Import ONNX Network with Autogenerated Custom Layers|
|Import ONNX Model as Layer Graph Compatible with DAGNetwork, Import ONNX Model as Layer Graph Compatible with dlnetwork|
|Model function and ||Predict Using Imported ONNX Function|
After you import a network or layer graph, the returned object is ready for all the workflows that Deep Learning Toolbox supports.
Automatic Generation of Custom Layers
importONNXLayers functions create automatically generated
custom layers when you import a model with TensorFlow layers, PyTorch layers, or ONNX operators that the functions cannot convert to built-in MATLAB layers. The functions save the automatically generated custom layers
to a package in the current folder. For more information, see Autogenerated Custom Layers.
Visualize Imported Network
function to plot a diagram of the imported network or layer graph. You cannot use the
plot function with
net = importTensorFlowNetwork("digitsNet"); plot(net)
analyzeNetwork function to visualize and understand the architecture of
the imported network or layer graph, check that you have defined the architecture
correctly, and detect problems before training. Problems that
analyzeNetwork detects include missing or unconnected layers,
incorrectly sized layer inputs, an incorrect number of layer inputs, and invalid graph
net = importTensorFlowNetwork("NASNetMobile", ... OutputLayerType="classification",Classes=ClassNames); analyzeNetwork(net)
Predict with Imported Model
Preprocess Input Data
Preprocessing data is a common first step in the deep learning workflow to prepare data in a format that the network can accept. The input data size must match the network input size. If the sizes do not match, you must resize the input data. For an example, see Import ONNX Network as DAGNetwork. In some cases, the input data requires further processing, such as normalization. For an example, see Import ONNX Network with Autogenerated Custom Layers.
You must preprocess the input data in the same way as the training data. Often, open-source repositories provide information about the required input data preprocessing. To learn more about how to preprocess images and other types of data, see Preprocess Images for Deep Learning and Deep Learning Data Preprocessing.
Import Model as
DAGNetwork Object and Predict
Import a TensorFlow model in the
SavedModel format. By default,
importTensorFlowNetwork imports the network as a
DAGNetwork object. Specify the output layer type for an image
classification problem and the class names.
net = importTensorFlowNetwork("NASNetMobile", ... OutputLayerType="classification",Classes=ClassNames);
Predict the label of an image.
label = classify(net,Im);
Import Model as
dlnetwork Object and Predict
You must first convert the input data to a
object. For image input data, specify the data format as
For more information on how to specify the input data format, see Data Formats for Prediction with dlnetwork.
dlIm = dlarray(Im,"SSCB");
Import a TensorFlow model in the
SavedModel format as a
dlnetwork object. Specify the class names. A
dlnetwork does not have output layers.
net = importTensorFlowNetwork("NASNetMobile", ... Classes=ClassNames,TargetNetwork="dlnetwork");
Predict the label of an image.
prob = predict(net,dlIm); [~,label] = max(prob);
importNetworkFromPyTorch function imports the
network as an uninitialized
dlnetwork object. Before
prediction, add an input layer or initialize the imported network. For
examples, see Import Network from PyTorch and Add Input Layer and
Import Network from PyTorch and Initialize.
Compare Prediction Results
To check whether the TensorFlow or ONNX model matches the imported network, you can compare inference results by using real or randomized inputs to the network. For examples that show how to compare inference results, see Inference Comparison Between TensorFlow and Imported Networks for Image Classification and Inference Comparison Between ONNX and Imported Networks for Image Classification.
Predict in Simulink
You can use the imported network with the Predict block of Deep Learning Toolbox to classify an image in Simulink®. The imported network can contain automatically generated custom layers. For an example, see Classify Images in Simulink with Imported TensorFlow Network.
Predict on GPU
The import functions do not execute on a GPU. However, the
functions import a pretrained neural network for deep learning as a
dlnetwork object, which you can
use on a GPU.
If you import the network as a
DAGNetworkobject, you can make predictions with the imported network on a CPU or GPU by using
predict. Specify the hardware requirements using the
If you import the network as a
dlnetworkobject, you can make predictions with the imported network on a CPU or GPU by using
predictfunction executes on the GPU if the input data or network parameters are stored on the GPU.
Transfer Learning with Imported Network
Transfer learning is common in deep learning applications. You can use a pretrained network as a starting point to learn a new task. Fine-tuning a network with transfer learning is usually much faster and easier than training a network with randomly initialized weights from scratch. You can quickly transfer learned features to a new task using a smaller quantity of training data. This section describes how to import a convolutional model from TensorFlow for transfer learning.
NASNetMobile model as a layer graph and display its
lgraph = importTensorFlowLayers("NASNetMobile", ... OutputLayerType="classification"); lgraph.Layers(end-2:end)
ans = 3×1 Layer array with layers: 1 'predictions' Fully Connected 1000 fully connected layer 2 'predictions_softmax' Softmax softmax 3 'ClassificationLayer_predictions' Classification Output crossentropyex
The last layer with learnable weights is a fully connected layer. Replace this fully connected layer with a new fully connected layer in which the number of outputs is equal to the number of classes in the new data set. To learn faster in the new layer than in the transferred layers, increase the learning rate factors of the layer.
learnableLayer = lgraph.Layers(end-2); numClasses = numel(categories(imdsTrain.Labels)); newLearnableLayer = fullyConnectedLayer(numClasses, ... Name="new_fc", ... WeightLearnRateFactor=10, ... BiasLearnRateFactor=10); lgraph = replaceLayer(lgraph,learnableLayer.Name,newLearnableLayer);
The classification layer specifies the output classes of the network. Replace the
classification layer with a new one that does not have class labels. The
trainNetwork function automatically sets the output classes of the layer
at training time.
classLayer = lgraph.Layers(end); newClassLayer = classificationLayer(Name="new_classoutput"); lgraph = replaceLayer(lgraph,classLayer.Name,newClassLayer);
For an example that shows the complete transfer learning workflow, see Train Deep Learning Network to Classify New Images. For an example that
shows how to train a network imported as a
dlnetwork object to classify
new images, see Train Network Imported from PyTorch to Classify New Images.
Train Network on GPU
You can train the imported network on a CPU or GPU by using
trainNetwork. To specify training options, including options for the
execution environment, use the
trainingOptions function. Specify the hardware requirements using
ExecutionEnvironment name-value argument. For more
information on how to accelerate training, see Scale Up Deep Learning in Parallel, on GPUs, and in the Cloud.
Deploy Imported Network
Deploy Imported Network with MATLAB Coder or GPU Coder
You can use MATLAB Coder™ or GPU Coder™ together with Deep Learning Toolbox to generate MEX, standalone CPU, CUDA® MEX, or standalone CUDA code for an imported network. For more information, see Deep Learning Code Generation.
Use MATLAB Coder with Deep Learning Toolbox to generate MEX or standalone CPU code that runs on desktop or embedded targets. You can deploy generated standalone code that uses the Intel® MKL-DNN library or the ARM® Compute library. Alternatively, you can generate generic C or C++ code that does not call third-party library functions. For more information, see Deep Learning with MATLAB Coder (MATLAB Coder).
Use GPU Coder with Deep Learning Toolbox to generate CUDA MEX or standalone CUDA code that runs on desktop or embedded targets. You can deploy generated standalone CUDA code that uses the CUDA deep neural network library (cuDNN), the TensorRT™ high performance inference library, or the ARM Compute library for Mali GPU. For more information, see Deep Learning with GPU Coder (GPU Coder).
The import functions return the network as a
dlnetwork object. Both of these
objects support code generation. For more information on MATLAB
Coder and GPU Coder support for Deep Learning Toolbox objects, see Supported Classes (MATLAB Coder) and Supported Classes (GPU Coder),
You can generate code for any imported network whose layers support code
generation. For lists of the layers that support code generation with MATLAB
Coder and GPU Coder, see Supported Layers (MATLAB Coder) and Supported Layers (GPU Coder),
respectively. For more information on the code generation capabilities and
limitations of each built-in MATLAB layer, see the Extended Capabilities section of the layer. For
example, see the Code Generation and GPU Code Generation sections of
Deploy Imported Network with MATLAB Compiler
An imported network might include layers that MATLAB Coder does not support for deployment. In this case, you can deploy the imported network as a standalone application using MATLAB Compiler™. The standalone executable you create with MATLAB Compiler is independent of MATLAB; therefore, you can deploy it to users who do not have access to MATLAB.
You can deploy only the imported network using MATLAB
Compiler, either programmatically by using the
mcc (MATLAB Compiler) function or interactively by
using the Application Compiler (MATLAB Compiler) app. For an
example, see Deploy Imported TensorFlow Model with MATLAB Compiler.
Automatically generated custom layers do not support code generation with MATLAB Coder, GPU Coder, or MATLAB Compiler.
Functions that Export Networks and Layer Graphs
When you complete your deep learning workflows in MATLAB, you can share the deep learning network or layer graph with colleagues who work in different deep learning platforms. By entering one line of code, you can export the network.
You can export networks and layer graphs to TensorFlow and ONNX by using the
exportONNXNetwork functions. The functions can export
exportONNXNetworkfunction exports to the ONNX model format.
exportNetworkToTensorFlowfunction saves the exported TensorFlow model in a regular Python® package. You can load the exported model and use it for prediction or training. You can also share the exported model by saving it to
HDF5format. For more information on how to load the exported model and save it in a standard TensorFlow format, see Load Exported TensorFlow Model and Save Exported TensorFlow Model in Standard Format.
- Tips on Importing Models from TensorFlow, PyTorch, and ONNX
- Pretrained Deep Neural Networks
- Select Function to Import ONNX Pretrained Network
- Inference Comparison Between TensorFlow and Imported Networks for Image Classification
- Inference Comparison Between ONNX and Imported Networks for Image Classification
- Deploy Imported TensorFlow Model with MATLAB Compiler