# Effect of Automatic Differentiation in Problem-Based Optimization

When using automatic differentiation, the problem-based `solve`

function generally requires fewer function evaluations and can operate more robustly.

By default, `solve`

uses automatic differentiation to evaluate the gradients of objective and nonlinear constraint functions, when applicable. Automatic differentiation applies to functions that are expressed in terms of operations on optimization variables without using the `fcn2optimexpr`

function. See Automatic Differentiation in Optimization Toolbox and Convert Nonlinear Function to Optimization Expression.

### Minimization Problem

Consider the problem of minimizing the following objective function:

$$\begin{array}{l}fun1=100{\left({x}_{2}-{x}_{1}^{2}\right)}^{2}+{\left(1-{x}_{1}\right)}^{2}\\ fun2=\mathrm{exp}\left(-\sum {\left({x}_{i}-{y}_{i}\right)}^{2}\right)\mathrm{exp}\left(-\mathrm{exp}\left(-{y}_{1}\right)\right)sech\left({y}_{2}\right)\\ objective=fun1-\phantom{\rule{0.5em}{0ex}}fun2.\end{array}$$

Create an optimization problem representing these variables and the objective function expression.

prob = optimproblem; x = optimvar('x',2); y = optimvar('y',2); fun1 = 100*(x(2) - x(1)^2)^2 + (1 - x(1))^2; fun2 = exp(-sum((x - y).^2))*exp(-exp(-y(1)))*sech(y(2)); prob.Objective = fun1 - fun2;

The minimization is subject to the nonlinear constraint $${x}_{1}^{2}+{x}_{2}^{2}+{y}_{1}^{2}+{y}_{2}^{2}\le 4$$.

prob.Constraints.cons = sum(x.^2 + y.^2) <= 4;

### Solve Problem and Examine Solution Process

Solve the problem starting from an initial point.

init.x = [-1;2]; init.y = [1;-1]; [xproblem,fvalproblem,exitflagproblem,outputproblem] = solve(prob,init);

Solving problem using fmincon. Local minimum found that satisfies the constraints. Optimization completed because the objective function is non-decreasing in feasible directions, to within the value of the optimality tolerance, and constraints are satisfied to within the value of the constraint tolerance.

disp(fvalproblem)

-0.5500

disp(outputproblem.funcCount)

77

disp(outputproblem.iterations)

46

The `output`

structure shows that `solve`

calls `fmincon`

, which requires 77 function evaluations and 46 iterations to solve the problem. The objective function value at the solution is `fvalproblem = -0.55`

.

### Solve Problem Without Automatic Differentiation

To determine the efficiency gains from automatic differentiation, set `solve`

name-value pair arguments to use finite difference gradients instead.

[xfd,fvalfd,exitflagfd,outputfd] = solve(prob,init,... "ObjectiveDerivative",'finite-differences',"ConstraintDerivative",'finite-differences');

Solving problem using fmincon. Local minimum found that satisfies the constraints. Optimization completed because the objective function is non-decreasing in feasible directions, to within the value of the optimality tolerance, and constraints are satisfied to within the value of the constraint tolerance.

disp(fvalfd)

-0.5500

disp(outputfd.funcCount)

264

disp(outputfd.iterations)

46

Using a finite difference gradient approximation causes `solve`

to take 269 function evaluations compared to 77. The number of iterations is nearly the same, as is the reported objective function value at the solution. The final solution points are the same to display precision.

disp([xproblem.x,xproblem.y])

0.8671 1.0433 0.7505 0.5140

disp([xfd.x,xfd.y])

0.8671 1.0433 0.7505 0.5140

In summary, the main effect of automatic differentiation in optimization is to lower the number of function evaluations.