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Examples comparing Antenna Toolbox™ simulations with fabricated antennas, measured results, and technical articles.

Will use an elementary dipole and loop antenna and analyze the wave impedance behavior of each radiator in space at a single frequency. The region of space around an antenna has been defined in a variety of ways. The most succinct description is using a 2-or 3-region model. One variation of the 2-region model uses the terms near-field and far-field to identify specific field mechanisms that are dominant. The 3-region model, splits the near-field into a transition zone, wherein a weakly radiative mechanism is at work. Other terms that have been used to describe these zones, include, quasistatic field, reactive field, non-radiative field, Fresnel region, induction zone etc. [1]. Pinning these regions down mathematically presents further challenges as observed with the variety of definitions available across different sources [1]. Understanding the regions around an antenna is critical for both an antenna engineer as well as an electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) engineer. The antenna engineer may want to perform near-field measurements and then compute the far-field pattern. To the EMC engineer, understanding the wave impedance is required for designing a shield with a particular impedance to keep interference out.

Create and analyze antenna arrays in Antenna Toolbox™, with emphasis on concepts such as beam scanning, sidelobe level, mutual coupling, element patterns, and grating lobes. The analyses is on a 9-element linear array of half-wavelength dipoles

Explains how to excite an antenna using a plane-wave. The antenna in this case can be thought of as a receiving antenna. A receiving antenna may be viewed as any metal object that scatters an incident electromagnetic field. As a result of scattering an electric current appears on the antenna's surface. The current in turn creates a corresponding electric field. This produces a voltage difference across the feed. This voltage constitutes the received signal. [1]

Read a MSI Planet antenna file (.MSI or .PLN). You can read a MSI file using the msiread function and visualize the data using the polarpattern function. You can also write the data back into the MSI Planet format using the msiwrite function.

Visualize a radiation pattern and vector fields from user data. To plot 3D field data, use the patternCustom function. This function also allows the user to slice the data and see it. To visualize just 2D polar data use the polarpattern function. The polarpattern function allows you to interact with the data as well as perform antenna specific measurements. The user can also plot the vector fields at a point in space using the fieldsCustom function.

The far-field radiation pattern of a fully excited array can be recreated from the superposition of the individual embedded patterns of each element. The pattern multiplication theorem in array theory states that the far-field radiation pattern of an array is the product of the individual element pattern and the array factor. In the presence of mutual coupling, the individual element patterns are not identical and therefore invalidates the result from pattern multiplication. However, by computing the embedded pattern for each element and using superposition, we can show the equivalence to the array pattern under full excitation.

Analyzes the impedance behavior of a monopole at varying mesh resolution/sizes and at a single frequency of operation. The resistance and reactance of the monopole are plotted and compared with the theoretical results. A relative convergence curve is established for the impedance.

Analyzes the impedance behavior of a center-fed dipole antenna at varying mesh resolution/size and at a single frequency of operation. The resistance and reactance of the dipole are compared with the theoretical results. A relative convergence curve is established for the impedance.

Compares the impedance of a monopole analyzed in Antenna Toolbox™ with the measured results. The corresponding antenna was fabricated and measured at the Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics (CMIP), Duke University. The monopole is designed for an operating frequency of 2.5 GHz.

Compares results published in [1] for a two-arm equiangular spiral antenna on foamclad backing(ϵr≈ 1), with those obtained using the toolbox model of the spiral antenna of the same dimensions. The spiral antennas belong to the class of frequency-independent antennas. In theory, such antennas may possess an infinite bandwidth when made infinitely large. In reality, a finite feeding region has to be established and the outer extent of the spiral antenna has to be truncated.

Compares the results published in [1] for an Archimedean spiral antenna with those obtained using the toolbox model of the spiral antenna. The two-arm Archimedean spiral antenna( r = R ϕ ) can be regarded as a dipole, the arms of which have been wrapped into the shape of an Archimedean spiral. This idea came from Edwin Turner around 1954.

Studies a helical antenna designed in [2] with regard to the achieved directivity. Helical antennas were introduced in 1947 [1]. Since then, they have been widely used in certain applications such as mobile and satellite communications. Helical antennas are commonly used in an axial mode of operation which occurs when the circumference of the helix is comparable to the wavelength of operation. In this mode, the helical antenna has the maximum directivity along its axis and radiates a circularly-polarized wave.

Design a double tuning L-section matching network between a resistive source and capacitive load in the form of a small monopole. The L-section consists of two inductors. The network achieves conjugate match and guarantees maximum power transfer at a single frequency. This example requires the following product:

Calculates and compares the transmit and receive manifolds for a basic half-wavelength dipole antenna array. The array manifold is a fundamental property of antenna arrays, both in transmit and receive configurations. The transmit and receive manifolds are theoretically the same due to the reciprocity theorem. This example validates this equality thus providing an important verification of the calculations performed by the Antenna Toolbox™.

Radar cross section benchmarking example.

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