# fullyconnect

Sum all weighted input data and apply a bias

## Description

The fully connect operation multiplies the input by a weight matrix and then adds a bias vector.

**Note**

This function applies the fully connect operation to `dlarray`

data. If
you want to apply the fully connect operation within a `dlnetwork`

object, use `fullyConnectedLayer`

.

## Examples

### Fully Connect All Input Data to Output Features

The `fullyconnect`

function uses the weighted sum to
connect all inputs of an observation to each output feature.

Create the input data as a single observation of random values with a height and width of 12 and 32 channels.

```
height = 12;
width = 12;
channels = 32;
observations = 1;
X = rand(height,width,channels,observations);
X = dlarray(X,'SSCB');
```

Create the learnable parameters. For this operation there are ten output features.

outputFeatures = 10; weights = ones(outputFeatures,height,width,channels); bias = ones(outputFeatures,1);

Apply the `fullyconnect`

operation.

Y = fullyconnect(X,weights,bias);

Y = 10(C) × 1(B) dlarray 1.0e+03 * 2.3266 2.3266 2.3266 2.3266 2.3266 2.3266 2.3266 2.3266 2.3266 2.3266

The output `Y`

is a 2-D `dlarray`

with one channel
dimension of size ten and one singleton batch dimension.

## Input Arguments

`X`

— Input data

`dlarray`

| numeric array

Input data, specified as a formatted `dlarray`

, an unformatted
`dlarray`

, or a numeric array. When `X`

is not a
formatted `dlarray`

, you must specify the dimension label format using
`'DataFormat',FMT`

. If `X`

is a numeric array, at
least one of `weights`

or `bias`

must be a
`dlarray`

.

The `fullyconnect`

operation sums over the `'S'`

,
`'C'`

, and `'U'`

dimensions of `X`

for each output feature specified by `weights`

. The size of each
`'B'`

or `'T'`

dimension of `X`

is
preserved.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`weights`

— Weights

`dlarray`

| numeric array

Weights, specified as a formatted `dlarray`

, an unformatted
`dlarray`

, or a numeric array.

If `weights`

is an unformatted `dlarray`

or a
numeric array, the first dimension of `weights`

must match the number
of output features. If `weights`

is a formatted
`dlarray`

, the size of the `'C'`

dimension must
match the number of output features. `weights`

must contain the same
number of elements as the combined size of the `'S'`

,
`'C'`

, and `'U'`

dimensions of input
`X`

multiplied by the number of output features.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`bias`

— Bias constant

`dlarray`

vector | numeric vector

Bias constant, specified as a formatted `dlarray`

, an unformatted
`dlarray`

, or a numeric array.

Each element of `bias`

is the bias applied to the corresponding
feature output. The number of elements of `bias`

must match the number
of output features specified by the first dimension of
`weights`

.

If `bias`

is a formatted `dlarray`

, the
nonsingleton dimension must be a channel dimension labeled `'C'`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`FMT`

— Description of data dimensions

character vector | string scalar

Description of the data dimensions, specified as a character vector or string scalar.

A data format is a string of characters, where each character describes the type of the corresponding data dimension.

The characters are:

`"S"`

— Spatial`"C"`

— Channel`"B"`

— Batch`"T"`

— Time`"U"`

— Unspecified

For example, consider an array containing a batch of sequences where the first, second,
and third dimensions correspond to channels, observations, and time steps, respectively. You
can specify that this array has the format `"CBT"`

(channel, batch,
time).

You can specify multiple dimensions labeled `"S"`

or `"U"`

.
You can use the labels `"C"`

, `"B"`

, and
`"T"`

once each, at most. The software ignores singleton trailing
`"U"`

dimensions after the second dimension.

If the input data is not a formatted `dlarray`

object, then you must
specify the `FMT`

option.

For more information, see Deep Learning Data Formats.

**Data Types: **`char`

| `string`

## Output Arguments

`Y`

— Weighted output features

`dlarray`

Weighted output features, returned as a `dlarray`

. The output
`Y`

has the same underlying data type as the input
`X`

.

If the input `X`

is a formatted `dlarray`

, the
output `Y`

has one dimension labeled `'C'`

representing the output features, and the same number of `'B'`

or
`'T'`

dimensions as the input `X`

, if either or both
are present. If `X`

has no `'B'`

or
`'T'`

dimensions, `Y`

has the format
`'CB'`

, where the `'B'`

dimension is
singleton.

If the input `X`

is not a formatted `dlarray`

,
output `Y`

is unformatted. The first dimension of `Y`

contains the output features. Other dimensions of `Y`

correspond to the
`'B'`

and `'T'`

dimensions of `X`

,
if either or both are present, and are provided in the same order as in
`FMT`

. If `X`

has no `'B'`

or
`'T'`

dimensions, the first dimension of `Y`

contains the output features and the second dimension is singleton.

## Algorithms

### Fully Connect Operation

The `fullyconnect`

function connects all outputs of
the previous operation to the outputs of the `fullyconnect`

function. For
more information, see the definition of Fully Connected Layer on the `fullyConnectedLayer`

reference page.

### Deep Learning Array Formats

Most deep learning networks and functions operate on different dimensions of the input data in different ways.

For example, an LSTM operation iterates over the time dimension of the input data, and a batch normalization operation normalizes over the batch dimension of the input data.

To provide input data with labeled dimensions or input data with additional layout information, you can use *data formats*.

A data format is a string of characters, where each character describes the type of the corresponding data dimension.

The characters are:

`"S"`

— Spatial`"C"`

— Channel`"B"`

— Batch`"T"`

— Time`"U"`

— Unspecified

For example, consider an array containing a batch of sequences where the first, second,
and third dimensions correspond to channels, observations, and time steps, respectively. You
can specify that this array has the format `"CBT"`

(channel, batch,
time).

To create formatted input data, create a `dlarray`

object and specify the format using the second argument.

To provide additional layout information with unformatted data, specify the format using the `FMT`

argument.

For more information, see Deep Learning Data Formats.

## Extended Capabilities

### C/C++ Code Generation

Generate C and C++ code using MATLAB® Coder™.

### GPU Code Generation

Generate CUDA® code for NVIDIA® GPUs using GPU Coder™.

### GPU Arrays

Accelerate code by running on a graphics processing unit (GPU) using Parallel Computing Toolbox™.

The `fullyconnect`

function
supports GPU array input with these usage notes and limitations:

When at least one of the following input arguments is a

`gpuArray`

or a`dlarray`

with underlying data of type`gpuArray`

, this function runs on the GPU:`X`

`weights`

`bias`

For more information, see Run MATLAB Functions on a GPU (Parallel Computing Toolbox).

## Version History

**Introduced in R2019b**

## MATLAB Command

You clicked a link that corresponds to this MATLAB command:

Run the command by entering it in the MATLAB Command Window. Web browsers do not support MATLAB commands.

Select a Web Site

Choose a web site to get translated content where available and see local events and offers. Based on your location, we recommend that you select: .

You can also select a web site from the following list:

## How to Get Best Site Performance

Select the China site (in Chinese or English) for best site performance. Other MathWorks country sites are not optimized for visits from your location.

### Americas

- América Latina (Español)
- Canada (English)
- United States (English)

### Europe

- Belgium (English)
- Denmark (English)
- Deutschland (Deutsch)
- España (Español)
- Finland (English)
- France (Français)
- Ireland (English)
- Italia (Italiano)
- Luxembourg (English)

- Netherlands (English)
- Norway (English)
- Österreich (Deutsch)
- Portugal (English)
- Sweden (English)
- Switzerland
- United Kingdom (English)