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The linear networks discussed in this section are similar to the perceptron, but their transfer function is linear rather than hard-limiting. This allows their outputs to take on any value, whereas the perceptron output is limited to either 0 or 1. Linear networks, like the perceptron, can only solve linearly separable problems.

Here you design a linear network that, when presented with a set of given input vectors, produces outputs of corresponding target vectors. For each input vector, you can calculate the network's output vector. The difference between an output vector and its target vector is the error. You would like to find values for the network weights and biases such that the sum of the squares of the errors is minimized or below a specific value. This problem is manageable because linear systems have a single error minimum. In most cases, you can calculate a linear network directly, such that its error is a minimum for the given input vectors and target vectors. In other cases, numerical problems prohibit direct calculation. Fortunately, you can always train the network to have a minimum error by using the least mean squares (Widrow-Hoff) algorithm.

This section introduces `linearlayer`

, a function that creates a
linear layer, and `newlind`

, a function that designs a linear
layer for a specific purpose.

A linear neuron with *R* inputs is shown below.

This network has the same basic structure as the perceptron. The only difference
is that the linear neuron uses a linear transfer function `purelin`

.

The linear transfer function calculates the neuron's output by simply returning the value passed to it.

$$\alpha =purelin(n)=purelin(Wp+b)=Wp+b$$

This neuron can be trained to learn an affine function of its inputs, or to find a linear approximation to a nonlinear function. A linear network cannot, of course, be made to perform a nonlinear computation.

The linear network shown below has one layer of *S* neurons
connected to *R* inputs through a matrix of weights **W**.

Note that the figure on the right defines an *S*-length output
vector **a**.

A single-layer linear network is shown. However, this network is just as capable as multilayer linear networks. For every multilayer linear network, there is an equivalent single-layer linear network.

Consider a single linear neuron with two inputs. The following figure shows the diagram for this network.

The weight matrix **W** in this case has only one
row. The network output is

$$\alpha =purelin(n)=purelin(Wp+b)=Wp+b$$

or

$$\alpha ={w}_{1,1}{p}_{1}+{w}_{1,2}{p}_{2}+b$$

Like the perceptron, the linear network has a * decision boundary* that is determined by the input
vectors for which the net input *n* is zero. For
*n* = 0 the equation **Wp** +
*b* = 0 specifies such a decision boundary, as shown below
(adapted with thanks from [HDB96]).

Input vectors in the upper right gray area lead to an output greater than 0. Input vectors in the lower left white area lead to an output less than 0. Thus, the linear network can be used to classify objects into two categories. However, it can classify in this way only if the objects are linearly separable. Thus, the linear network has the same limitation as the perceptron.

You can create this network using `linearlayer`

, and configure its
dimensions with two values so the input has two elements and the output has
one.

net = linearlayer; net = configure(net,[0;0],0);

The network weights and biases are set to zero by default. You can see the current values with the commands

W = net.IW{1,1} W = 0 0

and

b= net.b{1} b = 0

However, you can give the weights any values that you want, such as 2 and 3, respectively, with

net.IW{1,1} = [2 3]; W = net.IW{1,1} W = 2 3

You can set and check the bias in the same way.

net.b{1} = [-4]; b = net.b{1} b = -4

You can simulate the linear network for a particular input vector. Try

p = [5;6];

You can find the network output with the function `sim`

.

a = net(p) a = 24

To summarize, you can create a linear network with `linearlayer`

, adjust its elements
as you want, and simulate it with `sim`

.

Like the perceptron learning rule, the least mean square error (LMS) algorithm is an example of supervised training, in which the learning rule is provided with a set of examples of desired network behavior:

$$\left\{{p}_{1},{t}_{1}\right\},\left\{{p}_{2},{t}_{2}\right\},\dots \left\{{p}_{Q},{t}_{Q}\right\}$$

Here **p**_{q} is an input to the
network, and **t**_{q} is the
corresponding target output. As each input is applied to the network, the network
output is compared to the target. The error is calculated as the difference between
the target output and the network output. The goal is to minimize the average of the
sum of these errors.

$$mse=\frac{1}{Q}{\displaystyle \sum _{k=1}^{Q}e{(k)}^{2}}=\frac{1}{Q}{\displaystyle \sum _{k=1}^{Q}{(t(k)-\alpha (k))}^{2}}$$

The LMS algorithm adjusts the weights and biases of the linear network so as to minimize this mean square error.

Fortunately, the mean square error performance index for the linear network is a quadratic function. Thus, the performance index will either have one global minimum, a weak minimum, or no minimum, depending on the characteristics of the input vectors. Specifically, the characteristics of the input vectors determine whether or not a unique solution exists.

You can find more about this topic in Chapter 10 of [HDB96].

Unlike most other network architectures, linear networks can be designed directly if input/target vector pairs
are known. You can obtain specific network values for weights and biases to minimize
the mean square error by using the function `newlind`

.

Suppose that the inputs and targets are

P = [1 2 3]; T= [2.0 4.1 5.9];

Now you can design a network.

net = newlind(P,T);

You can simulate the network behavior to check that the design was done properly.

Y = net(P) Y = 2.0500 4.0000 5.9500

Note that the network outputs are quite close to the desired targets.

You might try Pattern Association Showing Error Surface. It shows error surfaces for a particular problem, illustrates the design, and plots the designed solution.

You can also use the function `newlind`

to design linear networks having delays in the input. Such
networks are discussed in Linear Networks with Delays. First, however, delays must be
discussed.

You need a new component, the tapped delay line, to make full use of the linear network. Such a
delay line is shown below. There the input signal enters from the left and
passes through *N*-1 delays. The output of the tapped delay
line (TDL) is an *N*-dimensional vector, made up of the input
signal at the current time, the previous input signal, etc.

You can combine a tapped delay line with a linear network to create the
linear* filter*
*shown*.

The output of the filter is given by

$$\alpha (k)=purelin(Wp+b)={\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{R}{w}_{1,i}p(k-i+1)+b}$$

The network shown is referred to in the digital signal processing field as a finite impulse response (FIR) filter [WiSt85]. Look at the code used to generate and simulate such a network.

Suppose that you want a linear layer that outputs the sequence
`T`

, given the sequence `P`

and two
initial input delay states `Pi`

.

P = {1 2 1 3 3 2}; Pi = {1 3}; T = {5 6 4 20 7 8};

You can use `newlind`

to design a network with
delays to give the appropriate outputs for the inputs. The delay initial outputs
are supplied as a third argument, as shown below.

net = newlind(P,T,Pi);

You can obtain the output of the designed network with

Y = net(P,Pi)

to give

Y = [2.7297] [10.5405] [5.0090] [14.9550] [10.7838] [5.9820]

As you can see, the network outputs are not exactly equal to the targets, but they are close and the mean square error is minimized.

The LMS algorithm, or Widrow-Hoff learning algorithm, is based on an approximate steepest descent procedure. Here again, linear networks are trained on examples of correct behavior.

Widrow and Hoff had the insight that they could estimate the mean square error by
using the squared error at each iteration. If you take the partial derivative of the
squared error with respect to the weights and biases at the *k*th
iteration, you have

$$\frac{\partial {e}^{2}(k)}{\partial {w}_{1,j}}=2e(k)\frac{\partial e(k)}{\partial {w}_{1,j}}$$

for *j* = 1,2,…,*R* and

$$\frac{\partial {e}^{2}(k)}{\partial b}=2e(k)\frac{\partial e(k)}{\partial b}$$

Next look at the partial derivative with respect to the error.

$$\frac{\partial e(k)}{\partial {w}_{1,j}}=\frac{\partial [t(k)-\alpha (k)]}{\partial {w}_{1,j}}=\frac{\partial}{\partial {w}_{1,j}}[t(k)-(Wp(k)+b)]$$

or

$$\frac{\partial e(k)}{\partial {w}_{1,j}}=\frac{\partial}{\partial {w}_{1,j}}\left[t(k)-\left({\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{R}{w}_{1,i}{p}_{i}(k)+b}\right)\right]$$

Here *p _{i}*(

This can be simplified to

$$\frac{\partial e(k)}{\partial {w}_{1,j}}=-{p}_{j}(k)$$

and

$$\frac{\partial e(k)}{\partial b}=-1$$

Finally, change the weight matrix, and the bias will be

2α*e*(*k*)**p**(*k*)

and

2α*e*(*k*)

These two equations form the basis of the Widrow-Hoff (LMS) learning algorithm.

These results can be extended to the case of multiple neurons, and written in matrix form as

$$\begin{array}{l}W(k+1)=W(k)+2\alpha e(k){p}^{T}(k)\\ b(k+1)=b(k)+2\alpha e(k)\end{array}$$

Here the error **e** and the bias **b** are vectors, and α is a *learning
rate*. If α is large, learning occurs quickly, but if it is too large
it can lead to instability and errors might even increase. To ensure stable
learning, the learning rate must be less than the reciprocal of the largest
eigenvalue of the correlation matrix **p**^{T}**p** of the input vectors.

You might want to read some of Chapter 10 of [HDB96] for more information about the LMS algorithm and its convergence.

Fortunately, there is a toolbox function, `learnwh`

, that does all the calculation for you. It calculates the
change in weights as

dw = lr*e*p'

and the bias change as

db = lr*e

The constant 2, shown a few lines above, has been absorbed into the code learning
rate `lr`

. The function `maxlinlr`

calculates this maximum
stable learning rate `lr`

as 0.999 *
`P'`

*`P`

.

Type `help learnwh`

and `help maxlinlr`

for more
details about these two functions.

Linear networks can be trained to perform linear classification with the function `train`

. This function applies each vector of a set of input vectors
and calculates the network weight and bias increments due to each of the inputs
according to `learnp`

. Then the network is adjusted
with the sum of all these corrections. Each pass through the input vectors is called
an *epoch*. This contrasts with `adapt`

which adjusts weights for each
input vector as it is presented.

Finally, `train`

applies the inputs to the new
network, calculates the outputs, compares them to the associated targets, and
calculates a mean square error. If the error goal is met, or if the maximum number
of epochs is reached, the training is stopped, and `train`

returns the new network and a training record. Otherwise
`train`

goes through another epoch.
Fortunately, the LMS algorithm converges when this procedure is executed.

A simple problem illustrates this procedure. Consider the linear network introduced earlier.

Suppose you have the following classification problem.

$$\left\{{p}_{1}=\left[\begin{array}{l}2\\ 2\end{array}\right],{t}_{1}=0\}\left\{{p}_{2}=\left[\begin{array}{c}1\\ -2\end{array}\right],{t}_{2}=1\right\}\left\{{p}_{3}=\left[\begin{array}{c}-2\\ 2\end{array}\right],{t}_{3}=0\right\}\{{p}_{4}=\left[\begin{array}{c}-1\\ 1\end{array}\right],{t}_{4}=1\right\}$$

Here there are four input vectors, and you want a network that produces the output corresponding to each input vector when that vector is presented.

Use `train`

to get the weights and biases
for a network that produces the correct targets for each input vector. The initial
weights and bias for the new network are 0 by default. Set the error goal to 0.1
rather than accept its default of 0.

P = [2 1 -2 -1;2 -2 2 1]; T = [0 1 0 1]; net = linearlayer; net.trainParam.goal= 0.1; net = train(net,P,T);

The problem runs for 64 epochs, achieving a mean square error of 0.0999. The new weights and bias are

weights = net.iw{1,1} weights = -0.0615 -0.2194 bias = net.b(1) bias = [0.5899]

You can simulate the new network as shown below.

A = net(P) A = 0.0282 0.9672 0.2741 0.4320

You can also calculate the error.

err = T - sim(net,P) err = -0.0282 0.0328 -0.2741 0.5680

Note that the targets are not realized exactly. The problem would have run longer in an attempt to get perfect results had a smaller error goal been chosen, but in this problem it is not possible to obtain a goal of 0. The network is limited in its capability. See Limitations and Cautions for examples of various limitations.

This example program, Training a Linear Neuron, shows the training of a linear neuron and plots the weight trajectory and error during training.

You might also try running the example program
`nnd10lc`

. It addresses a classic and historically interesting
problem, shows how a network can be trained to classify various patterns, and shows
how the trained network responds when noisy patterns are presented.

Linear networks can only learn linear relationships between input and output
vectors. Thus, they cannot find solutions to some problems. However, even if a
perfect solution does not exist, the linear network will minimize the sum of squared
errors if the learning rate `lr`

is sufficiently small. The network
will find as close a solution as is possible given the linear nature of the
network's architecture. This property holds because the error surface of a linear
network is a multidimensional parabola. Because parabolas have only one minimum, a
gradient descent algorithm (such as the LMS rule) must produce a solution at that
minimum.

Linear networks have various other limitations. Some of them are discussed below.

Consider an overdetermined system. Suppose that you have a network to be trained
with four one-element input vectors and four targets. A perfect solution to
*wp* + *b* = *t* for each
of the inputs might not exist, for there are four constraining equations, and
only one weight and one bias to adjust. However, the LMS rule still minimizes
the error. You might try Linear Fit of Nonlinear Problem to see how
this is done.

Consider a single linear neuron with one input. This time, in Underdetermined Problem, train it on only one one-element input vector and its one-element target vector:

P = [1.0]; T = [0.5];

Note that while there is only one constraint arising from the single input/target pair, there are two variables, the weight and the bias. Having more variables than constraints results in an underdetermined problem with an infinite number of solutions. You can try Underdetermined Problem to explore this topic.

Normally it is a straightforward job to determine whether or not a linear
network can solve a problem. Commonly, if a linear network has at least as many
degrees of freedom (*S* **R* +
*S* = number of weights and biases) as constraints
(*Q* = pairs of input/target vectors), then the network can
solve the problem. This is true except when the input vectors are linearly dependent and they are applied to a network without biases.
In this case, as shown with the example Linearly Dependent Problem, the network
cannot solve the problem with zero error. You might want to try Linearly Dependent Problem.

You can always train a linear network with the Widrow-Hoff rule to find the
minimum error solution for its weights and biases, as long as the learning rate is small enough. Example Too Large a Learning Rate shows what
happens when a neuron with one input and a bias is trained with a learning rate
larger than that recommended by `maxlinlr`

. The network is trained
with two different learning rates to show the results of using too large a
learning rate.