# Perform Binary-Point Scaling

This example shows how to perform binary point scaling using a `fi`

object.

### Construct `fi`

Object

Use the `fi`

constructor, a` = fi(v,s,w,f)`

, to return a `fi`

object with value `v`

, signedness `s`

, word length `w`

, and fraction length `f`

. If `s`

is true (signed), the leading or most significant bit (MSB) in the resulting `fi`

object is always the sign bit. The fraction length `f`

gives the scaling, `2^(-f)`

. The fraction length or the scaling determines the position of the binary point in the `fi`

object.

For example, create a signed 8-bit `fi`

object with a value of `0.5`

and a scaling of `2^(-7)`

.

a = fi(0.5,true,8,7)

a = 0.5000 DataTypeMode: Fixed-point: binary point scaling Signedness: Signed WordLength: 8 FractionLength: 7

### Fraction Length Positive and Less than Word Length

When the fraction length `f`

is positive and less than the word length, the binary point lies `f`

places to the left of the least significant bit (LSB) and within the word.

For example, in a signed 3-bit `fi`

with fraction length of 1 and value -0.5, the binary point lies 1 place to the left of the LSB. In this case, each bit is set to `1`

and the binary equivalent of the `fi`

with its binary point is `11.1`

.

The real world value of -0.5 is obtained by multiplying each bit by its scaling factor, starting with the LSB and working up to the signed MSB.

`(1*2^-1) + (1*2^0) + (-1*2^1) = -0.5`

`storedInteger`

`(a)`

returns the stored signed, unscaled integer value `-1`

.

`(1*2^0) + (1*2^1) + (-1*2^2) = -1`

a = fi(-0.5,true,3,1)

a = -0.5000 DataTypeMode: Fixed-point: binary point scaling Signedness: Signed WordLength: 3 FractionLength: 1

bin(a)

ans = '111'

storedInteger(a)

`ans = `*int8*
-1

### Fraction Length Positive and Greater than Word Length

When the fraction length `f`

is positive and greater than the word length, the binary point lies `f`

places to the left of the LSB and outside the word.

For example the binary equivalent of a signed 3-bit word with fraction length of 4 and value of -0.0625 is `._111`

Here, `_`

in the `._111`

denotes an unused bit that is not a part of the 3-bit word. The first `1`

after the `_`

is the MSB or the sign bit.

The real world value of -0.0625 is computed as follows (LSB to MSB).

`(1*2^-4) + (1*2^-3) + (-1*2^-2) = -0.0625`

b = fi(-0.0625,true,3,4)

b = -0.0625 DataTypeMode: Fixed-point: binary point scaling Signedness: Signed WordLength: 3 FractionLength: 4

bin(b)

ans = '111'

storedInteger(b)

`ans = `*int8*
-1

### Fraction Length is Negative Integer and Less than Word Length

When the fraction length `f`

is negative, the binary point lies `f`

places to the right of LSB and is outside the physical word.

For instance, in `c = fi(-4,true,3,-2)`

the binary point lies 2 places to the right of the LSB `111__.`

. Here, the two right most spaces are unused bits that are not part of the 3-bit word. The right most `1`

is the LSB and the leading `1`

is the sign bit.

The real world value of -4 is obtained by multiplying each bit by its scaling factor `2^(-f)`

, for instance `2(-(-2)) = 2^(2)`

for the LSB, and then adding the products together.

`(1*2^2) + (1*2^3) +(-1*2^4) = -4`

c = fi(-4,true,3,-2)

c = -4 DataTypeMode: Fixed-point: binary point scaling Signedness: Signed WordLength: 3 FractionLength: -2

bin(c)

ans = '111'

storedInteger(c)

`ans = `*int8*
-1

### Fraction Length Set Automatically to the Best Precision Possible and Is Negative

Create a signed 3-bit `fi`

where the fraction length is set automatically depending on the value that the `fi`

is supposed to contain. The resulting `fi`

has a value of 6, with a wordlength of 3 bits and a fraction length of -1. Here the binary point is 1 place to the right of the LSB: `011_.`

. The `_`

is again an unused bit and the first `1`

before the `_`

is the LSB. The leading `1`

is the sign bit.

The real world value of `6`

is obtained as follows:

`(1*2^1) + (1*2^2) + (-0*2^3) = 6`

d = fi(5,true,3)

d = 6 DataTypeMode: Fixed-point: binary point scaling Signedness: Signed WordLength: 3 FractionLength: -1

bin(d)

ans = '011'

storedInteger(d)

`ans = `*int8*
3

### Interactive `fi`

Binary Point Scaling Example

To run an interactive binary-point scaling example, enter `fibinscaling`

at the MATLAB® Command Window.

This interactive example allows you to change the fraction length of a 3-bit fixed-point number by moving the binary point using a slider. The fraction length can be varied from `-3`

to `5`

. You can change the value of the 3 bits to `'0'`

or `'1'`

for either signed or unsigned numbers.

`%#ok<*NOPTS,*NASGU>`

## See Also

`fi`

| `bin`

| `storedInteger`