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swarmchart3

3-D swarm scatter chart

    Description

    example

    swarmchart3(x,y,z) displays a 3-D swarm chart, which is a scatter plot with the points offset (jittered) in the x- and y-dimensions. The points form distinct shapes, and the outline of each shape is similar to a violin plot. 3-D swarm charts help you to visualize discrete (x,y) data with the distribution of the z data. At each (x,y) location, the points are jittered based on the kernel density estimate of z.

    example

    swarmchart3(x,y,z,sz) specifies the marker sizes. To plot all the markers with the same size, specify sz as a scalar. To plot the markers with different sizes, specify sz as a vector that is the same size as x, y, and z.

    example

    swarmchart3(x,y,z,sz,c) specifies the marker colors. To plot all the markers with the same color, specify c as a color name or an RGB triplet. To assign a different color to each marker, specify a vector the same size as x, y, and z. Alternatively, you can specify a three-column matrix of RGB triplets. The number of rows in the matrix must match the length of x, y, and z.

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    swarmchart3(___,mkr) specifies a different marker than the default marker, which is a circle. Specify mkr after all the arguments in any of the previous syntaxes.

    example

    swarmchart3(___,'filled') fills in the markers. Specify the 'filled' option after all the arguments in any of the previous syntaxes.

    swarmchart3(___,Name,Value) specifies additional properties for the swarm chart using one or more Name,Value pair arguments. Specify the properties after all other input arguments. For a list of properties, see Scatter Properties.

    example

    swarmchart3(ax,___) displays the swarm chart in the target axes. Specify the axes before all the arguments in any of the previous syntaxes.

    example

    s = swarmchart3(___) returns the Scatter object. Use s to modify properties of the chart after creating it. For a list of properties, see Scatter Properties.

    Examples

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    Read the BicycleCounts.csv data set into a timetable called tbl. This data set contains bicycle traffic data over a period of time. Display the first five rows of tbl.

    tbl = readtable(fullfile(matlabroot,'examples','matlab','data','BicycleCounts.csv'));
    tbl(1:5,:)
    ans=5×5 table
             Timestamp              Day         Total    Westbound    Eastbound
        ___________________    _____________    _____    _________    _________
    
        2015-06-24 00:00:00    {'Wednesday'}     13          9            4    
        2015-06-24 01:00:00    {'Wednesday'}      3          3            0    
        2015-06-24 02:00:00    {'Wednesday'}      1          1            0    
        2015-06-24 03:00:00    {'Wednesday'}      1          1            0    
        2015-06-24 04:00:00    {'Wednesday'}      1          1            0    
    
    

    Create a vector x with the day name from each observation.

    daynames = ["Sunday" "Monday" "Tuesday" "Wednesday" "Thursday" "Friday" "Saturday"];
    x = categorical(tbl.Day,daynames);

    Create a categorical vector y containing the values "pm" or "am" according to the time for each observation in the table. Create vector z of eastbound traffic data. Then create a swarm chart of x, y, and z. The chart shows the data distributions for each day and evening of the week.

    ispm = tbl.Timestamp.Hour < 12;
    y = categorical;
    y(ispm) = "pm";
    y(~ispm) = "am";
    z= tbl.Eastbound;
    swarmchart3(x,y,z);

    Create vector x as a combination of zeros and ones, and create y as a vector containing all ones. Create z as a vector of squared random numbers. Then create a swarm chart of x, y, and z, and specify the size marker size as 5.

    x = [zeros(1,500) ones(1,500)];
    y = ones(1,1000);
    z = randn(1,1000).^2;
    swarmchart3(x,y,z,5);

    Create vector x as a combination of zeros and ones, and create y as a vector containing all ones. Create z as a vector of squared random numbers. Then create a swarm chart of x, y, and z, and specify the point ('.') marker symbol.

    x = [zeros(1,500) ones(1,500)];
    y = ones(1,1000);
    z = randn(1,1000).^2;
    swarmchart3(x,y,z,'.');

    Create vector x containing a combination of zeros and ones, and create y containing a random combination of ones and twos. Create z as a vector of squared random numbers. Specify the colors for the markers by creating vector c as the square root of z. Then create a swarm chart of x, y, and z. Set the marker size to 50 and specify the colors as c. The values in c index into the figure's colormap. Use the 'filled' option to fill the markers with color instead of displaying them as hollow circles.

    x = [zeros(1,500) ones(1,500)];
    y = randi(2,1,1000);
    z = randn(1,1000).^2;
    c = sqrt(z);
    swarmchart3(x,y,z,50,c,'filled');

    Create vector x containing a combination of zeros and ones, and create y containing a random combination of the numbers one through four. Create z as a vector of squared random numbers. Then create a swarm chart of x, y, and z by calling the swarmchart function with a return argument that stores the Scatter object. Add x- and y-axis labels so you can see the effect of changing the jitter properties in each dimension.

    x = [zeros(1,500) ones(1,500)];
    y = randi(4,1,1000);
    z = randn(1,1000).^2;
    s = swarmchart3(x,y,z);
    xlabel('X')
    ylabel('Y')

    Change the shapes of the clusters of points by setting the jitter properties on the Scatter object. In the x dimension, specify uniform random jitter, and change the jitter width to 0.5 data units. In the y dimension, specify normal random jitter, and change the jitter width to 0.1 data units. The spacing between points does not exceed the jitter width you specify.

    s.XJitter = 'rand';
    s.XJitterWidth = 0.5;
    s.YJitter = 'randn';
    s.YJitterWidth = 0.1;

    Read the BicycleCounts.csv data set into a timetable called tbl. This data set contains bicycle traffic data over a period of time. Display the first five rows of tbl.

    tbl = readtable(fullfile(matlabroot,'examples','matlab','data','BicycleCounts.csv'));
    tbl(1:5,:)
    ans=5×5 table
             Timestamp              Day         Total    Westbound    Eastbound
        ___________________    _____________    _____    _________    _________
    
        2015-06-24 00:00:00    {'Wednesday'}     13          9            4    
        2015-06-24 01:00:00    {'Wednesday'}      3          3            0    
        2015-06-24 02:00:00    {'Wednesday'}      1          1            0    
        2015-06-24 03:00:00    {'Wednesday'}      1          1            0    
        2015-06-24 04:00:00    {'Wednesday'}      1          1            0    
    
    

    Create vector x with the days names for each observation. Create a categorical vector y containing the values "pm" or "am" according to the time for each observation in the table. Define ze as a vector of eastbound traffic data, and define zw as a vector of westbound traffic data.

    daynames = ["Sunday" "Monday" "Tuesday" "Wednesday" "Thursday" "Friday" "Saturday"];
    x = categorical(tbl.Day,daynames);
    ispm = tbl.Timestamp.Hour<12;
    y = categorical;
    y(ispm) = 'pm';
    y(~ispm) = 'am';
    ze = tbl.Eastbound;
    zw = tbl.Westbound;

    Create a tiled chart layout in the 'flow' tile arrangement, so that the axes fill the available space in the layout. Call the nexttile function to create an axes object and return it as ax1. Then create a swarm chart of the eastbound data by passing ax1 to the swarmchart function.

    tiledlayout('flow')
    ax1=nexttile;
    swarmchart3(ax1,x,y,ze,'.');

    Repeat the process to create a second axes object and a swarm chart for the westbound traffic.

    ax2 = nexttile;
    z = tbl.Westbound;
    swarmchart3(ax2,x,y,zw,'.');

    Input Arguments

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    x-coordinates, specified as a numeric scalar or a vector the same size as y and z.

    Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64 | categorical

    y-coordinates, specified as a numeric scalar or a vector the same size as x and z.

    Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64 | categorical

    z-coordinates, specified as a numeric scalar or a vector the same size as x and y.

    Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64 | datetime | duration

    Marker size in points, specified in one of these forms:

    • Numeric scalar — Plot all markers with equal size.

    • Row or column vector — Use different sizes for each marker. The length of sz must equal the length of x, y, and z.

    • [] — Use the default size of 36 points.

    Marker color, specified in one of these forms:

    • RGB triplet or color name — Plot all the markers with the same color. An RGB triplet is a three-element row vector whose elements specify the intensities of the red, green, and blue components of the color. The intensities must be in the range [0,1]. Alternatively, you can specify a color name from the table below.

    • Three column matrix of RGB triplets — Use different colors for each marker. Each row of the matrix specifies an RGB triplet color for the corresponding marker. The number of rows must equal the length of x, y, and z.

    • Vector — Use different colors for each marker. The values in c index into the current colormap, and they cover the full range of the colormap. The length of c must equal the length of x, y, and z. To change the colormap, use the colormap function.

    Color NameDescriptionEquivalent RGB Triplet
    'red' or 'r'Red[1 0 0]
    'green' or 'g'Green[0 1 0]
    'blue' or 'b'Blue[0 0 1]
    'yellow' or 'y'Yellow[1 1 0]
    'magenta' or 'm'Magenta[1 0 1]
    'cyan' or 'c'Cyan[0 1 1]
    'white' or 'w'White[1 1 1]
    'black' or 'k'Black[0 0 0]

    Marker type, specified as one of the values listed in this table.

    MarkerDescription
    'o'Circle
    '+'Plus sign
    '*'Asterisk
    '.'Point
    'x'Cross
    '_'Horizontal line
    '|'Vertical line
    's'Square
    'd'Diamond
    '^'Upward-pointing triangle
    'v'Downward-pointing triangle
    '>'Right-pointing triangle
    '<'Left-pointing triangle
    'p'Pentagram
    'h'Hexagram

    Option to fill the interior of the markers, specified as 'filled'. Use this option with markers that have a face, for example, 'o' or 'square'. Markers that do not have a face and contain only edges do not render at all ('+', '*', '.', and 'x').

    The 'filled' option sets the MarkerFaceColor property of the Scatter object to 'flat' and the MarkerEdgeColor property to 'none'. In this case, MATLAB® draws the marker faces, but not the edges.

    Target axes, specified as an Axes object. If you do not specify the axes, MATLAB plots into the current axes, or it creates an Axes object if one does not exist.

    Name-Value Pair Arguments

    Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments. Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

    Example: swarmchart3(randi(2,500,1),randi(2,500,1),randn(500,1),'MarkerFaceColor','red') specifies red filled markers.

    Type of jitter (spacing of points) along the x-dimension, specified as one of the following values:

    • 'none' — Do not jitter the points.

    • 'density' — Jitter the points using the kernel density estimate of y for 2-D charts. If you specify this option in two dimensions for a 3-D chart, the points are jittered based on the kernel density estimate in the third dimension. For example, setting XJitter and YJitter to 'density' uses the kernel density estimate of z.

    • 'rand' — Jitter the points randomly with a uniform distribution.

    • 'randn' — Jitter points randomly with a normal distribution.

    Maximum amount of jitter (offset between points) along the x-dimension, specified as a nonnegative scalar value in data units.

    For example, to set the jitter width to 90% of the shortest distance between adjacent points, take the minimum distance between unique values of x and scale by 0.9.

    XJitterWidth = 0.9 * min(diff(unique(x)));

    Type of jitter (spacing of points) along the y-dimension, specified as one of the following values:

    • 'none' — Do not jitter the points.

    • 'density' — Jitter the points using the kernel density estimate of x for 2-D charts. If you specify this option in two dimensions for a 3-D chart, the points are jittered based on the kernel density estimate in the third dimension. For example, setting XJitter and YJitter to 'density' uses the kernel density estimate of z.

    • 'rand' — Jitter the points randomly with a uniform distribution.

    • 'randn' — Jitter points randomly with a normal distribution.

    Maximum amount of jitter (offset between points) along the y-dimension, specified as a nonnegative scalar value in data units.

    For example, to set the jitter width to 90% of the shortest distance between adjacent points, take the minimum distance between unique values of y and scale by 0.9.

    YJitterWidth = 0.9 * min(diff(unique(y)));

    Algorithms

    The points in a swarm chart are jittered using uniform random values that are weighted by the Gaussian kernel density estimate of z and the relative number of points at each (x, y) location. This behavior corresponds to the default 'density' setting of the XJitter and YJitter properties on the Scatter object when you call the swarmchart3 function.

    The maximum spread of points at each x location is 90% of the smallest distance between adjacent points by default. For example, in the x dimension, the spread is calculated as:

    spread = 0.9 * min(diff(unique(x)));

    You can control the offset by setting the XJitterWidth and YJitterWidth properties on the Scatter object.

    See Also

    Functions

    Properties

    Introduced in R2020b