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Piecewise biarc Hermite interpolation

`c = rscvn(p,u) `

c = rscvn(p)

`c = rscvn(p,u) `

returns
a planar piecewise biarc curve (in quadratic rBform) that passes,
in order, through the given points `p(:,j)`

and is
constructed in the following way (see Construction of a Biarc). Between any two distinct
points` p(:,j)`

and `p(:,j+1)`

,
the curve usually consists of two circular arcs (including straight-line segments) which
join with tangent continuity, with the first arc starting at `p(:,j)`

and
normal there to `u(:,j)`

, and the second arc ending
at `p(:,j+1)`

and normal there to `u(:,j+1)`

,
and with the two arcs written as one whenever that is possible. Thus
the curve is tangent-continuous everywhere except, perhaps, at repeated
points, where the curve may have a corner, or when the angle, formed
by the two segments ending at `p(:,j)`

, is unusually
small, in which case the curve may have a cusp at that point.

`p`

must be a real matrix, with two rows, and
at least two columns, and any column must be different from at least
one of its neighboring columns.

`u`

must be a real matrix with two rows, with
the same number of columns as `p`

(for two exceptions,
see below), and can have no zero column.

`c = rscvn(p) `

chooses the normals in the following way. For `j=2:end-1`

, `u(:,j)`

is
the average of the (normalized, right-turning) normals to the vectors `p(:,j)-p(:,j-1)`

and `p(:,j+1)-p(:,j)`

.
If `p(:,1)==p(:,end)`

, then both end normals are
chosen as the average of the normals to `p(:,2)-p(:,1)`

and `p(:,end)-p(:,end-1)`

thus
preventing a corner in the resulting closed curve. Otherwise, the
end normals are so chosen that there is only one arc over the first
and last segment (not-a-knot end condition).

`rscvn(p,u)`

, with `u`

having
exactly two columns, also chooses the interior normals as for the
case when `u`

is absent but uses the two columns
of `u`

as the end-point normals.

**Example 1.** The following code
generates a description of a circle, using just four pieces. Except
for a different scaling of the knot sequence, it is the same description
as is supplied by `rsmak('circle',1,[1;1])`

.

p = [1 0 -1 0 1; 0 1 0 -1 0]; c = rscvn([p(1,:)+1;p(2,:)+1],p);

The same circle, but using just two pieces, is provided by

c2 = rscvn([0,2,0; 1,1,1]);

**Example 2.** The following code
plots two letters. Note that the second letter is the result of interpolation
to just four points. Note also the use of translation in the plotting
of the second letter.

p = [-1 .8 -1 1 -1 -1 -1; 3 1.75 .5 -1.25 -3 -3 3]; i = eye(2); u = i(:,[2 1 2 1 2 1 1]); B = rscvn(p,u); S = rscvn([1 -1 1 -1; 2.5 2.5 -2.5 -2.5]); fnplt(B), hold on, fnplt(fncmb(S,[3;0])), hold off axis equal, axis off

**Two Letters Composed of Circular Arcs**

**Example 3.** The following code
generates the Construction of a Biarc, of use in the discussion below of the biarc construction
used here. Note the use of `fntlr`

to find the tangent
to the biarc at the beginning, at the point where the two arcs join,
and at the end.

p = [0 1;0 0]; u = [.5 -.1;-.25 .5]; plot(p(1,:),p(2,:),'k'), hold on biarc = rscvn(p,u); breaks = fnbrk(biarc,'b'); fnplt(biarc,breaks(1:2),'b',3), fnplt(biarc,breaks(2:3),'r',3) vd = fntlr(biarc,2,breaks); quiver(vd(1,:),vd(2,:),vd(4,:),-vd(3,:)), hold off

**Construction of a Biarc**

Given two distinct points, `p1`

and `p2`

,
in the plane and, correspondingly, two nonzero vectors, `u1`

and `u2`

,
there is a one-parameter family of biarcs (i.e., a curve consisting
of two arcs with common tangent at their join) starting at `p1`

and
normal there to `u1`

and ending at `p2`

and
normal there to `u2`

. One way to parametrize this
family of biarcs is by the normal direction, `v`

,
at the point `q`

at which the two arcs join. With
a nonzero `v`

chosen, there is then exactly one choice
of `q`

, hence the entire biarc is then determined. In the construction used in `rscvn`

, `v`

is
chosen as the reflection, across the perpendicular to the segment
from `p1`

to `p2`

, of the average
of the vectors `u1`

and `u2`

, --
after both vectors have been so normalized that their length is 1
and that they both point to the right of the segment from `p1`

to `p2`

.
This choice for `v`

seems natural in the two standard
cases: (i) `u2`

is the reflection of `u1`

across
the perpendicular to the segment from `p1`

to `p2`

;
(ii) `u1`

and `u2`

are parallel.
This choice of `v`

is validated by Biarcs as a Function of the Left Normal which
shows the resulting biarcs when `p1`

, `p2`

,
and `u2 = [.809;.588]`

are kept fixed and only the
normal at `p1`

is allowed to vary.

**Biarcs as a Function of the Left Normal**

But it is impossible to have the interpolating biarc depend
continuously at all four data, `p1`

, `p2`

, `u1`

, `u2`

.
There has to be a discontinuity as the normal directions, `u1`

and `u2`

,
pass through the direction from `p1`

to `p2`

.
This is illustrated in Biarcs as a Function of One Endpoint which shows the biarcs when one point, ```
p1
= [0;0]
```

, and the two normals, `u1 = [1;1]`

and ```
u2
= [1;-1]
```

, are held fixed and only the other point, `p2`

,
moves, on a circle around `p1`

.

**Biarcs as a Function of One Endpoint**