# Vectorize/optimize sum over permutation

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cmangla on 27 Aug 2021
Commented: cmangla on 31 Aug 2021
In the code below:
p = zeros(N, M, M);
for i=1:N
for j = 1:M
p(i, j, j:M) = Psi(i, Pi(i, j:M));
end
end
p = sum(p, 3);
Psi only contains positive real values. Pi contains permutation of indices of each row. N is large, approximately 2500, while M is small, M=4. This fragment is from an inner loop in my code.
It turns out that the assignment operation in the inner loop is the performance bottle-neck. I tried doing the summation in there rather than in the final line. My measurements were hasty but it seemed to be slower than doing the summation once in the final line.
How can I vectorize these loops? Or is there a different way to optimize this?
Note that since I am summing along the 3rd dimension in the final line, the order/index of values in p in the 3rd dimension index does not matter.
##### 1 CommentShowHide None
cmangla on 27 Aug 2021
I've come up with a vectorisation, but it's clumsy:
p = zeros(N, M);
Psi_lin = Psi(:);
for j = 1:M
Pi_j = Pi(:, j:M);
Pi_width = M - j + 1;
Ri = repmat((1:N)', 1, Pi_width);
Psi_rows = Ri(:);
Psi_cols = Pi_j(:);
Psi_ind = sub2ind([N, M], Psi_rows, Psi_cols);
Psi_j = reshape(Psi_lin(Psi_ind), [N, Pi_width]);
p(:,j) = sum(Psi_j, 2);
end
p = rho + log(p);
I'd love to see suggestions of a cleaner approach.

Kumar Pallav on 31 Aug 2021
I have tried a different way to approach this problem, where the complexity is reduced by performing the vectorization as shown in code below. Hope it helps!
p=zeros(N,M);
%permute the 'Psi' matrix according to the permute matrix 'pi'
for i=1:N
Psi(i,:)=Psi(i,Pi(i,:));
end
%perform the summation according to the logic
for j=1:M
p(:,j)=sum(Psi(:,j:M),2); %first col in p is sum of 1:3 col in Psi
end %second col in p is sum of 2:3 col in Psi and so on
##### 1 CommentShowHide None
cmangla on 31 Aug 2021
I might try this out, but I'm worried the first loop will turn out to be a bottleneck, similar to how the loops in my original code are. Even in my original code, I'm not doing any computation in the loops, but the bottleneck is there, it seems due to the memory access pattern. I suspect it is happening due to the lack of memory locality in each iteration of the loop (1:N).
Your first loop can also be vectorised using the linear indexing trick I posted in my comment. In my code it seems to have a massive impact. It is more than 6x faster.

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