I am wondering how the function "detectCheckerboardPoints" works. What prerequisites are there for the image I? What algorithm is behind the function? E.g., does it rely on a harris corner detector? Does it explicitly look for quadrilaterals? Why doesn't it work for this image, for example?
Probably because it's such a poor quality image. You might have to do some preprocessing first to get rid of the noise and posterization, and of course better image capture environment (lighting, geometry, etc.).