Image segmentation is handled well and can be done easily using the image processing toolbox from matlab.
For aeroplane detection, you may have to use the object detection features of the computer vision toolbox.
One type of approach can be found here. [https://www.mathworks.com/help/vision/examples/object-detection-in-a-cluttered-scene-using-point-feature-matching.html]
The computer vision toolbox gives you multiple different classifiers and methods you could use to achieve this objective. Some of them though may require you to get some training images of what an aeroplane looks like and then use that classifier on your test image here. So depending on what you have available, you can choose the method accordingly.
Hope this helps.